Thursday, December 20, 2012

'Abd Allah ibn Buluggin ibn Badis

‘Abd Allah ibn Buluggin ibn Badis (b. 1056 - d. after 1090, in Meknes), also known as 'Abdallah ibn Buluggin, was the ruler of the Zirid dynasty in Granada from 1064 to 1090 whose reign was marked by armed conflicts with his Muslim neighbors and by compromises with Alfonso VI, king of Castile.  He is also known for his Memoirs.
'Abd Allah ibn Buluggin ibn Badis, also known as al-Muzaffar, the conqueror, was the grandson of Badis ibn Habus. He was the last Zirid ruler of the Taifa of Granada (1073-1090). The Zirids were of North African Berber descent.

During his exile in Aghmat, Ibn Buluggin wrote his memoires and the history of the Zirids in Granada. It is entitled Al-Tibyan an al-haditha al-kaina bi-dawlat Bani Ziri fi Gharnata (An Expositon of the Downfall of the Zirid Dynasty in Granada).

Alternative names include:

'Abdallah ibn Buluggin
'Abd Allah ibn Buluggin ibn Badis
"The Conqueror"
Ibn Badis
Ibn Badis, 'Abd Allah ibn Buluggin
Ibn Buluggin
Ibn Buluggin, 'Abdallah
Muzaffar, al-

'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr

‘Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (b. May 624, Medina, Arabia - d. November 692, Mecca, Arabia), also known as ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr or 'Abd Allah ibn az-Zubayr, was an anti-caliph and a challenger to the Umayyads from 683 to 692. Upon Mu‘awiya’s death in 680, ‘Abd Allah, together with the Prophet’s grandson Husayn, refused allegiance to caliph Yazid at Damascus and fled to Mecca, where ‘Abd Allah proclaimed himself Commander of the Believers (amir al-mu'minin), the title adopted by ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab on his election as caliph in 634.  After a six months’ siege, during which the Ka‘ba came under bombardment, Mecca was taken by Yazid’s general al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf in 692 and ‘Abd Allah was slain. 

ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Zubayr was the leader of a rebellion against the Umayyad ruling dynasty of the Islāmic empire, and the most prominent representative of the second generation of Muslim families in Mecca, who resented the Umayyad assumption of caliphal authority.

As a youth Ibn al-Zubayr went on many of the military campaigns that marked the initial expansion of Islam and, in 651, he was nominated by the caliph (the titular leader of the Islamic empire) ʿUthman to aid in compiling an official recension (revision) of the Qurʾan. Subsequently remaining politically inactive, he took little part in the civil wars that followed the death of ʿUthman in 656. Resenting the Umayyad victory that was the eventual outcome of the civil wars, he refused to take an oath of allegiance to Yazid, the son and heir presumptive of Muʿawiyah, the first Umayyad caliph. When Yazid became caliph in 680, Ibn al-Zubayr still refused the oath of allegiance and fled to Mecca. There he secretly gathered an army. Yazid learned of this and dispatched forces of his own, which besieged Ibn al-Zubayr in Mecca. In 683, Yazid died, and the besieging army withdrew. Ibn al-Zubayr was left in peace until 692, when the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik sent an army to Mecca to force him to submit. Mecca was again besieged, and Ibn al-Zubayr was killed in the fighting.

Ibn al-Zubayr was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr. He was the nephew of Aisha, third wife of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

Ibn al-Zubayr was a member of the Bani Assad tribe and was born one year and 8 months after the hijra of Muhammad to Medina (Madinah). As such, he was the first Muslim child born in Medina (Madinah). As a young man, 'Abd Allah was an active participant in numerous Muslim campaigns against both the Byzantine and Sassanid empires. He marched to Sbeitla, Tunisia, the capital of self-proclaimed local emperor Gregory the Patrician. Gregory was defeated and killed in the Battle of Sufetula in 647 CE.

Ibn al-Zubayr was not active in politics during the reign of Mu'awiyah I, but upon the ascension of Yazid I, he refused to swear allegiance to the new caliph. He advised Husayn ibn 'Ali to make Mecca (Makkah) his base and fight against Yazid.  When Husayn was killed in Karbala, Ibn al-Zubayr collected the people of Mecca (Makkah) and made an impassioned speech.

After his speech, the people of Mecca (Makkah) declared that no one deserved the caliphate more than Ibn al-Zubayr and requested to take an oath of allegiance to his caliphate. When he heard about this, Yazid had a silver chain made and sent to Mecca (Makkah) with the intention of having Walid ibn Utbah arrest Ibn al-Zubayr with it.

One of his supporters, Muslim ibn Shihab, was the father of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri who became a famous scholar.

Eventually Ibn Zubayr consolidated his power by sending a governor to Kufa. Soon, Ibn Zubayr established his power in Iraq, southern Arabia and in the greater part of Syria, and parts of Egypt. Ibn Zubayr benefitted greatly from widespread dissatisfaction among the populace with Umayyad rule. Yazid tried to end Ibn Zubayr's rebellion by invading the Hejaz, and took Medina after the bloody Battle of al-Harrah followed by the siege of Mecca (Makkah) but his sudden death ended the campaign and threw the Umayyads into disarray with civil war eventually breaking out.

This essentially split the Islamic empire into two spheres with two different caliphs, but soon the Umayyad civil war was ended, and Ibn Zubayr lost Egypt and whatever he had of Syria to Marwan I. This coupled with the Kharijite rebellions in Iraq reduced his domain to only the Hejaz.

Ibn Zubayr was finally defeated by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, who sent Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf to reunite the Islamic empire. Hajjaj defeated and killed Ibn Zubayr on the battlefield in 692, beheading him and crucifying his body, re-establishing Umayyad control over the Islamic Empire.

Alternative names include:

'Abd Allah al-Zubair
'Abd Allah al-Zubayr

'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubair
'Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr
‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr
'Abd Allah ibn az-Zubayr
Al-Zubair, 'Abd Allah ibn
Al-Zubayr, 'Abd Allah
Ibn al-Zubair
Ibn al-Zubair, 'Abd Allah
Ibn al-Zubayr
Ibn al-Zubayr, 'Abd Allah
Ibn al-Zubayr
Ibn al-Zubayr, 'Abdallah
Ibn az-Zubayr
Ibn az-Zubayr, 'Abd Allah
Zubair, 'Abd Allah ibn al-
Zubayr, 'Abd Allah al-

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

'Abd Allah ibn al-'Abbas

‘Abd Allah ibn al-‘Abbas (b.c. 619 - d. 687/688, at-Ta'if, Arabia), also known as Ibn ‘Abbas, was the father of Qur’anic exegesis (commentary) and an ancestor of the ‘Abbasids. 'Abd Allah gathered information about the Prophet by questioning the Prophet’s Companions. He was also one of the signatories of the treaty of Siffin, but later fell out favor with the fourth caliph ‘Ali. After the latters’ death, he established contact with the Umayyad caliph al-Mu‘awiya and opposed the anti-caliph ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr.

Ibn 'Abbas is considered to be the most knowledgeable of the Companions in tafsir -- Qur'anic commentary. He has been called tarjuman al-qur'an -- "interpreter of the Qur'an". Because he was related to the Prophet, being Muhammad's cousin, and his maternal aunt Maimuna being one of Muhammad's wives, Ibn 'Abbas was very close to the Prophet and learned much about the Prophet's revelation.  

ʿAbd Allah ibn al-ʿAbbas, also called Ibn 'Abbas, byname Al-hibr ("the doctor") or Al-bahr ("the sea"), was a Companion of the Prophet Muḥammad; one of the greatest scholars of early Islam; and the first exegete of the Qurʾan.
In the early struggles for the caliphate, Ibn ʿAbbas supported ʿAli and was rewarded with the governorship of Basra. Subsequently, he defected and withdrew to Mecca. During the reign of Muʿawiyah, Ibn 'Abbas lived in the Hejaz, but frequently travelled to Damascus, the capital. After the death of Muʿawiyah, he opposed 'Ibn al-Zubayr (ʿIbn az-Zubayr), whom he refused to recognize as caliph, and was forced to flee to at-Taʾif, where he died.

Ibn ʿAbbas is renowned for his knowledge of both sacred and profane tradition and for his critical interpretations of the Qurʾan. From his youth, he gathered information concerning the words and deeds of Muhammad from other Companions and gave classes on interpretation of the Qurʾan, his commentaries on which were later collected.

'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas was a paternal cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is revered by Muslims for his knowledge and expert in Tafsir (exegesis of the Qur'an), as well as an authority on the Islamic Sunnah.

He was the son of a wealthy merchant, `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib. The mother of Ibn 'Abbas was Umm al-Fadl Lubaba, who prided herself on being the second woman who converted to Islam, on the same day as her close friend Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, Muhammad's wife.
The father of Ibn 'Abbas and the father of Muhammad were both the sons of the same person, Shaiba ibn Hashim, better known as ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib. That person's father was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, the progenitor of the Banu Hashim clan of the distinguished Quraish tribe in Mecca.

Ibn 'Abbas was born in 3 BH (618–619 C.C.) and his mother took him to Muhammad before he had begun to suckle. Muhammad put some of his saliva on the newborn's tongue, and that was the beginning of the close relationship between them.
While growing up, Ibn 'Abbas was by Muhammad's side doing different services like fetching water for ablution (Arabic: wudu). He would pray (Arabic: salat) with Muhammad and follow him on his assemblies, journeys and expeditions. Muhammad would often draw him close, pat him on the shoulder and pray, "O God! Teach him (the knowledge of) the Book", and Ibn Abbas devoted his life to the pursuit of learning and knowledge. Ibn 'Abbas kept following Muhammad, memorizing and learning his teaching.

In AH 10 (631/632), Muhammad fell into his last illness. During this period, the Hadith of the pen and paper was reported, with Ibn 'Abbas as the first level narrator, at that time being ten to fifteen years old. Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "No doubt, it was a great disaster that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing for them that writing because of their differences and noise."  Days after that, Ibn 'Abbas and 'Ali supported Muhammad's weight on their shoulder, as Muhammad was too weak to walk around on his own accord.
After Abu Bakr came to power, Ibn 'Abbas and his father were among them who unsuccessfully requested their part of Muhammad's inheritance, since Abu Bakr said that he heard Muhammad say that prophets do not leave inheritance.

After Muhammad's era, Ibn 'Abbas continued to collect and learn Muhammad's teaching from Muhammad's companions (Arabic: Sahaba), specially those who knew him the longest. He would consult multiple Sahaba to confirm narrations, and would go to as many as thirty Companions to verify a single matter. Once he heard that a Sahaba knew a hadith unknown to him.

Ibn 'Abbas was not content just to accumulate knowledge. Due to a sense of duty to the ummah, Ibn 'Abbas educated those in search of knowledge and the general masses of his community. He turned to teaching and his house became the equivalent of a university in the full sense of the word, with specialized teaching and with him as the only teacher.
He held classes on one single subject each day, classes on issues such as tafsir, fiqh, halal and Haraam, ghazawa, poetry, Arab history before Islam, inheritance laws, Arabic language and etymology.
Ibn 'Abbas remained a staunch supporter of the Caliph 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, during 'Ali's war with Mu'awiyah, including at the Battle of Siffin.
A large group of 'Ali's army was discontent with the conclusion of that arbitration, and broke off into a separate group. Ibn 'Abbas played a key role in convincing a large number of them to return to 'Ali, 20,000 of 24,000 according to some sources. He did so using his knowledge of Muhammad's biography, in particular, the events of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah.

Sunnis believe that Ibn 'Abbas was for the unity of the Muslims and, therefore, did not revolt against rulers. He advised Husayn ibn 'Ali against his proposed expedition to Kufa that ended at Karbala. Shi'as, on the other hand, contend that due to coercion and duress he gave an oath of allegiance to Yazid, using Taqiyya.

Ibn 'Abbas had a son named Ali ibn Abdullah who died in 118 AH. From Ibn 'Abbas' lineage came the 'Abbasid dynasty, which replaced the Umayyad dynasty. Ibn 'Abbas is highly respected by both Shi'a and Sunnis, even though Shi'a suffered severe persecution during the 'Abbasid Dynasty.

Alternative names include:
'Abd Allah ibn al-'Abbas
"The Doctor"
Father of Qur'anic Commentary
Father of Qur'anic Exegesis
Ibn 'Abbas
Ibn 'Abbas, 'Abd Allah
Ibn al-'Abbas
Ibn al-'Abbas, 'Abd Allah
Interpreter of the Qur'an
"The Sea"
Tarjuman al-Qur'an

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Qadir

‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Qadir (b. 1796/1797, Malacca, Malaya - d. October 1854, Jiddah (Jeddah), Turkish Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]), also known as 'Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir or Munshi 'Abdullah was an innovative Malay author whose principal work is his Memoirs (Hikayat Abdullah -- "Story of Abdullah"), in which he emphasized the advantages of a European administration over an Indian one, even though he sharply criticized the administrative measures of the English and the Dutch.  'Abd Allah was the first Malay writer to depart from the traditional Malay literary style by writing in the colloquial language.  Unlike courtly writing, 'Abd Allah's writing was realistic and lively, incorporating many Malay idioms and proverbs.  His Hikayat Abdullah was written between 1840 and 1843 and was published in 1849.  It is an important source of the early history of Singapore soon after it was founded by Raffles.  His other major work, Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah -- "The Tale of Abdullah's Voyage", describes 'Abd Allah's experiences on a trip from Singapore to Kelantan in 1838.  Munshi ("teacher" or "educator") 'Abd Allah was the first local Malay to have his works published.  For his early literary contributions, he is regarded as "Father of Modern Malay Literature."

'Abd Allah set out for a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1854.  However, he died in October of that year, apparently of plague.

'Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, also called Munshi 'Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, was a Malayan-born writer who, through his autobiographical and other works, played an important role as a progenitor of modern Malay literature.

Of mixed Arab (Yemeni) and Tamil descent, and Malayo-Muslim culture, Abdullah was born and grew up in a Malacca newly British, and he spent most of his life interpreting Malay society to Westerners and vice versa. Styled munshi (teacher or educator) from an early age, in recognition of his teaching Malay to Indian soldiers of the Malacca garrison (and later to a whole generation of British and American missionaries, officials, and businessmen), he rapidly became an indispensable functionary in the fledgling Straits Settlements. He was copyist and Malay scribe for Stamford Raffles; was translator of the Gospels and other texts into Malay for the London Missionary Society in Malacca from 1815; and 20 years later, served as printer to the press of the American Board of Missions in Singapore.

An American missionary, Alfred North, appears to have encouraged 'Abdullah in 1837, on the strength of a lively account published in that year of North’s experiences on a voyage up the east coast of Malaya, to embark on the story of his life. Completed in 1843, under the title Hikayat Abdullah (“Abdullah’s Story”), it was first published in 1849. Its chief distinction—beyond the vivid picture it gives of his life and times—was the radical departure it marked in Malay literary style. In contrast to the largely court literature of the past, the Hikayat Abdullah provided a lively and colloquial descriptive account of events and people with a freshness and immediacy hitherto unknown. 'Abdullah’s criticisms of his own society, and his eagerness to embrace standards set by the West (though he remained a staunch Muslim), have caused him to be treated with some caution by a more recent generation of nationalists, but he continues to be widely acknowledged as the father of modern Malay literature.

'Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, also known as Munshi Abdullah, was a Malayan writer of Indian origin. He was a famous Malacca-born Indian munshi of Singapore and died in Jeddah, then part of the Ottoman Empire (it is now in Saudi Arabia).

Munshi 'Abdullah is regarded as the most cultured Malay who ever wrote, one of the greatest innovators in Malay letters and the father of modern Malay literature.

The term Munshi means "teacher" or "educator". Munshi 'Abdullah was a great-grandson of a Hadhrami Arab trader, and also had Tamil and to a smaller extent, Malay ancestry. Owing to his ethnic and religious background, the Malays would refer to him as a Jawi Peranakan or Jawi Pekan.
Munshi 'Abdullah followed his father's career path as a translator and teacher of colonial officials in the Malay Archipelago, mainly the British and the Dutch.

Munshi 'Abdullah was born in Kampung Pali in Malacca. He was the youngest of five sons. All of his brothers died in infancy. He was sick most of the time and his mother took great care of him. Following the customs of Malays of the period, 'Abdullah was sent to many other caretakers to avoid him getting sick- as the belief was that a child should be taken care by other parents if the child always fell sick. This belief was criticised by Munshi 'Abdullah himself in his work Hikayat Abdullah as being 'stupid'.

'Abdullah's most important works are the Hikayat Abdullah (an autobiography), Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Kelantan (an account of his trip for the government to Kelantan), and Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Mekah (a narrative of his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1854). 'Abdullah's work was an inspiration to future generations of writers and marks an early stage in the transition from the classical Malay literature to modern Malay literature.

Hikayat Abdullah was the major literary work of Munshi 'Abdullah. It was completed in 1845 and first published in 1849, making it one of the first Malay literary texts to be published commercially. 'Abdullah’s authorship was prominently displayed in this text and the contents were conveyed in simple, contemporary Malay. Unlike typical classical Malay literary works that contain fantasies and legendary stories, 'Abdullah’s work was realistic. The book remains a reliable and accurate reference on early Malay history to this day.

'Abdullah was known as an ardent critic of the Malay political system of Kerajaan ("kingdom"). His work, Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Kelantan contained his advice to Malay rulers and comparisons he made between the British system of governing and that of Malay rulers.

'Abdullah argued that the system of Kerajaan was detrimental to the Malay individual, as it was an impediment to the social improvement of the Malays. The Malay Sultan was deemed to be someone who was selfish, with no concern toward his subjects, to the extent they were treated like animals rather than humans.

The idea of modernity and striving for excellence within the Malay community stemmed from his ideas and stinging criticisms of the ancient Malay polity of the Kerajaan. Under the Kerajaan, the Malays were deprived of education and hence they were easily oppressed. Without education, they did not have the ability to question the injustice meted out to them and could not take the initiative to institute changes in order to improve their lives.

Although the condemnation may be exaggerated, Munshi 'Abdullah's allegations were not without basis. He is regarded by many to be the first Malayan journalist, taking Malay literature out of its preoccupation with folk-stories and legends into accurate historical descriptions.

'Abdullah died in Jeddah in October 1854, before he reached Mecca.

Alternative names include:

'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Qadir
'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Kadir
'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Kadir, Munshi
'Abdullah, Munshi
Bin 'Abdul Kadir
Bin 'Abdul Kadir, 'Abdullah
Bin 'Abdul Kadir, Munshi 'Abdullah
Father of Modern Malay Literature
Ibn 'Abd al-Qadir
Ibn 'Abd al-Qadir, 'Abd Allah
Munshi 'Abdullah
Munshi 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Kadir

'Abd Allah al-Ghalib bi-'llah

‘Abd Allah al-Ghalib bi-’llah (1517 - January 22, 1574), also known as 'Abdallah al-Ghalib Billah, was the sultan of the Sa‘did dynasty in Morocco from 1557 to 1574 who sought an alliance with the Spanish against the Ottomans. 'Abdallah was forty years old when he became sultan and received the name Ghalib Billah.  Before that he had been vice-king of Marrakesh and governor of Fez.  During a relatively peaceful reign 'Abdallah succeeded in warding off both the Spanish and the Turks and in consolidating the sovereignty of Sadians over Morocco.  He fought the invading Turks in 1558 near the Oued Leben and drove them out of the country.  After his victory, he even occupied Tlemcen for a short period.  In 1568, he supported the insurrection of the moriscos in Spain.  'Abdallah died on January 22, 1574 of an asthma attack. After his reign, a period of civil war was to follow that lasted four years.

'Abd Allah al-Ghalib bi-'llah was the second Saadian sultan of Morocco.  He came to power -- to the throne -- as the legal heir of Mohammed ash-Sheikh. From his first wife, Mohammed ash-Sheikh had had three sons, but the two oldest had died (in 1550 and in 1551). Abdallah, the third son, was 40 years old when he became sultan and received the name al-Ghalib bi-'llah. Before that he had been viceroy of Marrakesh and governor of Fes.

Shortly after 'Abd Allah became sultan, three of his younger brothers fled the country and joined the Ottoman Turks: Abd al-Malik and Ahmad, both future Sultans of Morocco, spent 17 years in exile in the Ottoman Empire, between the Regency of Algiers and Constantinople, where they received Ottoman training.

During a relatively peaceful reign 'Abd Allah succeeded in warding off both the Spanish and the Turks and in consolidating the sovereignty of the Saadians over Morocco.  He fought the invading Turks in 1558 at the Battle of Wadi al-Laban and drove them out of the country. The Moroccan ruler had formed an alliance with the Spanish against the Ottomans. After his victory he even occupied Tlemcen for a short period.

In 1568, 'Abd Allah supported the insurrection of the Moriscos in Spain.

'Abd Allah al-Ghalib bi-'llah died on January 22, 1574 of an asthma attack. After his reign, a period of civil war was to follow that lasted four years.

Marrakesh (Marrakech) was 'Abd Allah's place of residency. He gave the city the Muassin mosque, a maristan (a hospital usually attached to a mosque) and the Ben Youssef Medrassa. He also reconstructed the al-Mansouria mosque.

'Abd Allah was succeeded by his son 'Abd Allah Mohammed, despite a Saadian inheritance rule that would have made 'Abd Allah al-Ghalib's younger brother, the exiled Abd al-Malik, next in line to the throne.

Alternative names include:

‘Abd Allah al-Ghalib bi-’llah
'Abdallah al-Ghalib Billah
Al-Ghalib bi-'llah, 'Abd Allah
Al-Ghalib Billah, 'Abdallah
Bi-'llah, 'Abd Allah al-Ghalib
Billah, 'Abdallah al-Ghalib
Ghalib bi-'llah, 'Abd Allah al-
Ghalib Billah, 'Abdallah

Friday, December 14, 2012

'Abd al-Karim al-Jili

‘Abd al-Karim al-Jili (1365 [1366?]-c.1424), also known as 'Abd-al-karim Jili or Abdul Karim Jili, was a mystic who lived in Zabid and visited India. Among other works, ‘Abd al-Karim wrote The Perfect Man (also known as Universal Man -- al-Insan al-Kamil) in which he shows himself an adherent of Ibn al-‘Arabi.  

'Abd al-Karim al-Jili is the foremost synthesizer and one of the greatest exponents of the work of Ibn Arabi. His book, The Perfect Man, is an explanation of Ibn Arabi's teachings on the structure of reality and human perfection. 'Abd al-Karim al-Jili conceived of the Absolute Being as a Self, a line of thinking which later influenced the 20th century Indian Muslim philosopher and poet Allama Iqbal. The Perfect Man is considered to be one of the masterpieces of Sufi literature.

'Abd al-Karim was a Muslim Sufi saint and mystic who was born at Jil in Baghdad.  He is famous in Muslim mysticism as the author of The Perfect Man (The Universal Man). 

'Abd al-Karim al-Jili was a descendant of the Muslim saint, Gilani, the founder of the Qadiriyya dervish order. Although little is known about his life, historians have noted that Jili travelled in India and lived in Yemen from 1393 to 1403. He wrote more than twenty books, of which The Perfect Man (The Universal Man) is the best known. 

Alternative names include:

'Abd al-Karim al-Jili
'Abd-al-karim Jili
Abdul Karim Jili
Al-Jili, 'Abd al-Karim
Jili, 'Abd-al-karim
Jili, Abdul Karim

Thursday, December 13, 2012

'Abd al-Ilah

‘Abd al-Ilah (b. November 14, 1913 at Ta'if, Arabia - d. July 14, 1958 at Baghdad), also known as 'Abdul Ilah or 'Abdullah, was the regent of Iraq from 1939 to 1953, and crown prince to 1958. A cousin and brother-in-law of King Ghazi, 'Abd al-Ilah was regent of Iraq for King Faisal II from April 4, 1939 to May 2, 1953, when Faisal came of age. He also held the title of Crown Prince of Iraq from 1943. A son of King 'Ali ibn Hussein of Hejaz, who was the elder brother of King Faisal I of Iraq, he assumed power upon the death of his brother in an automobile accident. He was deposed briefly by former prime minister Rashid 'Ali al-Kaylani, who led a pro-German coup during World War II but was restored after the United Kingdom invaded the country in May 1941. 'Abd al-Ilah stepped down in 1953, when Faisal came of age, but he continued to be a close adviser of the young king, and an advocate of a pro-Western foreign policy. He was killed, along with most of the royal family, on July 14, 1958, in a coup d'etat led by Colonel Abdul Karim Qassim that brought an end to the Iraqi monarchy. His body was dragged on al-Rashid street and was cut into pieces.

Son of the Hashimite king 'Ali ibn Hussein (ʿAli ibn Ḥusayn) of the Hejaz (northwestern Arabia), who was driven from Arabia by Ibn Saʿud, ʿAbd al-Ilah accompanied his father to Iraq in 1925. Upon King Ghazi’s death in 1939, he was appointed regent for his four-year-old nephew, Faisal II (Faysal II). ʿAbd al-Ilah ruled Iraq for 14 turbulent years, loyally serving the throne and supporting the Allies during World War II. In April 1941, faced with an uprising of army officers led by Rashid 'Ali al-Kaylani (Rashid ʿAli al-Gaylani), who was sympathetic to Germany and Italy, the regent was forced to leave Iraq. With British assistance, however, the revolt was suppressed by the end of May, and ʿAbd al-Ilah returned to Baghdad. Thereafter, in close collaboration with Nuri as-Said, he pursued a policy of moderate Iraqi nationalism and maintained strong ties with the West. When King Faysal reached legal age on May 2 (23?), 1953, the regent relinquished his functions but remained as the young king’s chief adviser and companion until both were killed during the Iraq revolution of 1958.

'Abd al-Ilah served as Regent for King Faisal II from April 4, 1939 to May 2 (23?), 1953, when Faisal came of age. He also held the title of Crown Prince of Iraq from 1943.

Son and heir of King 'Ali ibn Hussein of Hejaz, who was the elder brother of King Faisal I of Iraq, and brother of queen Aliya bint Ali, 'Abd al-Ilah assumed power upon Ghazi's death in an automobile accident. He served as Regent for the under-age Faisal II.

During World War II, 'Abd al-Ilah was deposed briefly by former Prime Minister Rashid 'Ali al-Kaylani. Rashid 'Ali led a pro-German coup d'état during World War II against 'Abd al-Ilah's pro-British government. After he fled the country, 'Abd al-Ilah was replaced as Regent by Sherif Sharaf. Sherif Sharaf was an aging, holy-minded relative of King Faisal. The deposed Regent spent his time with former Prime Minister Nuri as-Said as a refugee in Amman. 'Abd al-Ilah was a guest of Prince ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Husayn, the Hashemite ruler of Jordan.
On May 2, 1941, the United Kingdom launched offensive actions against the Iraqi rebels. On May 26, 'Abd al-Ilah called for an uprising of tribal and religious leaders to help him overthrow the insurgent government. He appealed specifically to the Iraqi people, the army and the police to accomplish "this heavy task".
By June 2, 1941, Rashid 'Ali's "National Defense Government" had collapsed and Rashid 'Ali had fled to Persia. 'Abd al-Ilah returned to Baghdad and was restored as Regent.
In 1942, Wendell Wilkie traveled to Britain and the Middle East as President Franklin D. Roosevelt's personal representative. In Iraq, 'Abd al-Ilah held a lavish state dinner attended by Wilkie.

In 1945, 'Abd al-Ilah visited the United States. He was the honoree at the first state dinner hosted by the new American First Lady, Bess Truman. The Regent of "friendly Iraq" was awarded a Legion of Merit military decoration by President Harry S. Truman.
In 1953, Abdul Ilah 'Abd al-Ilah stepped down when Faisal II came of age. However, he continued to be a close adviser of the young King, and an advocate of a pro-Western foreign policy.
In 1955, Iraq adopted the Baghdad Pact (also known as the Central Treaty Organization, or CENTO). The other members of the organization were Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The organization's headquarters were initially located in Baghdad.
In May 1957, King Ibn Sa'ud made an eight-day visit to Iraq. He was met on his arrival by King Faisal II, Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, and Prime Minister Nuri as-Said. It was the Saudi King's first ever visit to Iraq and it commemorated Iraq's membership in the Arab Federation and its break with the United Arab Republic of Gamal Abdel Nasser.

During the July 14 Revolution, 'Abd al-Ilah was killed, along with most of the royal family. On July 14, 1958, a coup d'état led by Colonel 'Abdul Karim Qassim toppled the government and brought an end to the Iraqi monarchy.

Alternative names include:

'Abd al-Ilah
'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz
'Abdul Ilah
Al-Ilah, 'Abd
Al-Ilah of Hejaz
Ilah, 'Abdul

Wednesday, December 12, 2012

'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya ibn Sa'd

‘Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya ibn Sa‘d (d. 750), also known as 'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-Katib, was the founder of Arabic epistolary style who was employed in the Umayyad secretariat and wrote epistles which were influenced by Sasanian tradition.  An itinerant schoolmaster, he became a statesman for the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan ibn Muhammad.  He was also the first designer of Arab prose and the creator of the Arabic epistle as well as the initiator of the adab.
'Abd al-Hamid was the secretary to the last Umayyad Caliph and a supreme stylist of early Arabic prose.
A notable quote from 'Abd al-Hamid reads:
Cultivate the Arabic language so that you may speak correctly; develop a handsome script which will add luster to your writings; learn the poetry of the Arabs by heart; familiarize yourself with unusual ideas and expressions; read the history of the Arabs and the Persians, and remember their great deeds.

Alternative names include:

'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-Katib
'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya ibn Sa'd
Ibn Yahya al-Katib
Ibn Yahya al-Katib, 'Abd al-Hamid
Ibn Sa'd
Ibn Sa'd, 'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya
Ibn Yahya ibn Sa'd
Ibn Yahya ibn Sa'd, 'Abd al-Hamid

‘Abd al-Ghani ibn Isma’il al-Nabulusi

‘Abd al-Ghani ibn Isma’il al-Nabulusi (March 19, 1641 - March 5, 1731), also known as Shaykh 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nablusi, was a Sufi mystic, theologian, poet and traveler.  A prolific writer who became a leading figure in the religious and literary life of Syria. 'Abd al-Ghani was a self-made religious scholar who relied on texts rather than masters in guiding his own intellectual and spiritual development. Together with his philosophy of religion, 'Abd al-Ghani promoted a new sense of religious rationalism.  He was a prolific author and an influential thinker with over 280 works to his credit.

'Abd al-Ghani was an eminent Muslim scholar and Sufi.  He was born in Damascus in 1641 into a family of Islamic scholarship. His father, Isma'il 'Abd al-Ghani, was a jurist in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam and a contributor to Arabic literature. 'Abd al-Ghani did not trace his descent to the city of Nablus as some laymen think, hence his surname Nabulsi has nothing to deal with the city of (Nablus).

'Abd al-Ghani showed diligence in the pursuit of Islamic knowledge and before the age of 20 he was both teaching and giving formal legal opinions (fatwa). He taught in the Umawi Mosque in Damascus and the Salihiyya Madrasa, becoming renowned throughout the region as an accomplished Islamic scholar.

'Abd al-Ghani died and was buried in Damascus in 1731 at 90 years of age. He left behind hundreds of written works in virtually all the Islamic sciences.  His works include:
  1. Idâh al-Maqsud min wahdat al-wujud (Clarifying What is Meant by the Unity of Being)
  2. Sharh Diwan Ibn Farid (Commentary on Ibn Farid's Poem)
  3. Jam'u al-Asrâr fi man'a al-Ashrâr 'an at-Ta'n fi as-Sufiyah al-Akhyar (Collection of the secrets to prevent the evils castigate the pious Sufis)
  4. Shifa' al-Sadr fî Fada'il Laylat al-Nisf Min Sha'bân wa Layllat al-Qadr (Curing the heart on the Virtues of the night of Nisfu Sha'ban and The Night of Qadr), private manuscript collection, unpublished.
  5. Nafahat al-Azhar 'Ala Nasamat al-Ashar
  6. al-Sulh bayn al-ikhwan fi hukm ibahat al-dukhan, ed. Ahmad Muhammad Dahman (Damascus, 1924).
  7. Ta‘tir al-anam fi tafsir al-ahlam, ed. Taha ‘Abd al-Ra’uf Sa‘d, 2 vols. (Damascus, n.d.)
  8. al-Haqiqa wa al-majaz fi al-rihla ila bilad al-sham wa misr wa al-hijaz, ed. Ahmad ‘Abd al-Majid al-Haridi (Cairo, 1986).
  9. al-Hadra al-Unsiyya fî al-Rihla al-Qudsiyya.
  10. Nihayat al-murad fi sharh hadiyat Ibn al-‘Imad, ed. ‘‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Halabi (Limmasol, 1994).
  11. al-Hadiqa al-nadiyya: Sharh al-tariqa al-muhammadiyya, 2 vols. (Lailbur, 1977).
  12. Hillat al-dhahab al-ibriz fi rihlat Ba'albak wa-al-Biqa' al-'aziz.
  13. Kitab 'ilm al-malahah fi 'ilm al-falahah.

Alternative names include:

'Abd al-Ghani
'Abd al-Ghani al-Nablusi
‘Abd al-Ghani ibn Isma’il al-Nabulusi
Al-Nablusi, 'Abd al-Ghani
Ibn Isma'il al-Nabulusi
Ibn Isma'il al-Nabulusi, 'Abd al-Ghani


Monday, December 10, 2012

'Abd al-'Aziz ibn al-Hassan

‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn al-Hassan (b. February 24, 1878, in Fez, Morocco - d. June 10, 1943, in Tangier, Morocco), also known as Mulai Abd al-Aziz IV and as Abdelaziz of Morocco, was the Filali Sharif of Morocco (r.1894-1908).  Increasing European pressure as, for instance, shown at Algeciras in 1906, which was interpreted as an act of surrender to the European powers, made ‘Abd al-‘Aziz unpopular.  In 1907, his brother Mawlay ‘Abd al-Hafiz was proclaimed sultan and ‘Abd al-‘Aziz abdicated. 

'Abd al-'Aziz served as the Sultan of Morocco from 1894 at the age of sixteen until he was deposed in 1908. He succeeded his father Hassan I of Morocco. He was a member of the Alaouite dynasty.

By the action of Ba Ahmad bin Musa, the Chamberlain of El Hasan, 'Abd al-'Aziz's accession to the sultanate was ensured with little fighting. Ba Ahmad became regent and for six years showed himself a capable ruler. However, Ba Ahmad died in 1900.  There were strong rumors that he was poisoned.

On the death of Ba Ahmad in 1900 the regency ended, and 'Abd al-'Aziz took the reins of government into his own hands.  He chose an Arab from the south, El Menebhi as his chief adviser.

Urged by his Circassian mother, 'Abd al-'Aziz sought advice and counsel from Europe and endeavored to act on it.  However, advice not motivated by a conflict of interest was difficult to obtain and, in spite of the unquestionable desire of the young ruler to do the best for the country, wild extravagance both in action and expenditure resulted, leaving the sultan with depleted exchequer and the confidence of his people impaired. Additionally, intimacy of 'Abd al-'Aziz with foreigners and his imitation of their ways were sufficient to rouse xenophobic fanaticism and create unrest.

The attempt of 'Abd al-'Aziz to reorganize the state finances by the systematic levy of taxes was hailed with delight, but the government was not strong enough to carry the measures through, and the money which should have been used to pay the taxes was employed to purchase firearms instead.  Thus, the benign intentions of 'Abd al-'Aziz were interpreted as weakness.  Europeans were accused of having spoiled the sultan and of being desirous of spoiling the country.

When British engineers were employed to survey the route for a railway between Meknes and Fez, this was reported as indicating an absolute sale of the country. The xenophobic fanaticism of the people was aroused, and a revolt broke out near the Algerian frontier. Such was the condition of circumstances that, when the news of the Anglo-French Agreement of 1904 arrived, it came as a blow to 'Abd al-'Aziz, who had relied on England for support and protection against the inroads of France.

On the advice of Germany, 'Abd al-'Aziz proposed the assembly of an international conference at Algeciras in 1906 to consult upon methods of reform, the sultan's desire being to ensure a condition of affairs which would leave foreigners with no excuse for interference in the control of the country.  This non-interference would promote the welfare of Morocco, a promotion that 'Abd al-'Aziz had earnestly desired from his accession to power.

'Abd al-'Aziz gave his adherence to the Act of the Algeciras Conference, but the state of anarchy into which Morocco fell during the latter half of 1906 and the beginning of 1907 showed that the young ruler lacked strength sufficient to make his will respected by his aroused subjects.

In May 1907, the southern aristocrats, led by the head of the Glaoua tribe, Si Elmadani El Glaoui, invited Abdelhafid, an elder brother of 'Abd al-'Aziz, and viceroy at Marrakech, to become sultan, and, in the following August, Abdelhafid was proclaimed sovereign there with all the usual formalities.

In the meantime, the murder of Europeans at Casablanca had led to the occupation of that port by France. In September Abd-el-Aziz arrived at Rabat from Fez and endeavored to secure the support of the European powers against his brother. From France, he accepted the grand cordon of the Legion of Honor, and was later enabled to negotiate a loan. This was seen as leaning to Christianity and aroused further opposition to his rule.  In January 1908, 'Abd al-'Aziz was declared deposed by the ulema (ulama) of Fez, who offered the throne to Hafid.

After months of inactivity, 'Abd al-'Aziz made an effort to restore his authority.  Quitting Rabat in July he marched on Marrakech. His force, largely owing to treachery, was completely overthrown on August 19 when near that city, and 'Abd al-'Aziz fled to Settat within the French lines around Casablanca. In November, he came to terms with his brother, and thereafter took up his residence in Tangier as a pensioner of the new sultan. However, the exercise of Moroccan law and order continued to deteriorate under Abdelhafid, leading to the humiliating Treaty of Fez in 1912, in which European nations assumed many responsibilities for the sultanate, which was divided into three zones of influence.

In exile, 'Abd al-'Aziz led a very active social, but semi-political life. During the Spanish annexation of Tangier in 1940, he acquiesced giving deference to the Moroccan palace authorities called the "makhzen".  'Abd al-'Aziz died in Tangier in 1943.

After the ex-sultan's sudden death in 1943, his body was transferred to French Morocco as desired by the Sultan Mohammed V.

'Abd al-'Aziz was portrayed by Marc Zuber in the film The Wind and the Lion (1975), a fictional version of Ion Perdicaris affair.

Alternative names include:

'Abd al-'Aziz IV
'Abd al-'Aziz ibn al-Hasan
'Abd al-'Aziz ibn al-Hassan
Abdelaziz of Morocco
Abd-el-Aziz of Morocco
Ibn al-Hasan
Ibn al-Hasan, 'Abd al-'Aziz
Ibn al-Hassan
Ibn al-Hassan, 'Abd al-'Aziz
Mulai 'Abd al-'Aziz IV 

Saturday, December 1, 2012

'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman Al Sa'ud

‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman Al Sa‘ud (b. c. 1880, Riyadh, Arabia - November 9, 1953, Al Ta'if, Saudi Arabia), also known as 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Sa'ud, or more simply as Ibn Sa'ud, was the founder king of Saudi Arabia (r.1902–1953). His family, with their regular seat at Riyadh, were the traditional leaders of the ultra-orthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam. During Ibn Sa'ud's youth the Sa'ud family was in exile in Kuwait. In 1902, Ibn Sa'ud and a small party of relatives and servants took Riyadh from the Rashid dynasty, and by 1912 he had restored Sa‘udi rule in Najd and had organized a well trained army. He then started settling Bedouins in Wahhabiyya-centered agricultural colonies whose members were known as “The Brothers” (in Arabic, al-Ikhwan).

In 1914, ‘Abd al-‘Aziz (Ibn Sa'ud) expelled the Ottomans from eastern Arabia and, in the following years, he subdued the Jabal Shammar area in northern Najd and annexed Asir. During World War I, the British made slight efforts to cultivate Ibn Sa'ud's friendship but favored his rival, Husayn ibn Ali of the Hejaz. In 1924, Ibn Sa'ud entered Mecca; in 1925, he entered Medina and Jidda; and, in 1926, he was proclaimed king of the Hejaz.

After consolidating his power over most of the Arabian peninsula, Ibn Sa'ud, in 1932, changed the name of his kingdom to Saudi Arabia. He forced many of the nomad tribes to adopt a settled way of life and to abandon the private wars and vendettas. He is credited with suppressing the robbery and extortion that formerly harassed pilgrims to Mecca and Medina.

In 1934, the dispute with Yemen was settled by a military victory followed by a treaty, and the government unified as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. After World War II, Ibn Sa'ud joined the United Nations and the Arab League.

In 1936 and 1939, Ibn Sa'ud granted oil concessions to American companies. The first commercial find of oil in Saudi Arabia was made during the reign of Ibn Sa'ud in 1937. The oil deposits of Arabia proved to be among the richest in the world, and Ibn Sa'ud used some of the income derived from them on national improvements. The greater part of his oil revenues, however, was spent on the royal family.

During World War II, Ibn Sa'ud remained neutral but favored the Allies. He took only a minor part in the Arab-Israeli war of 1948.

Ibn Sa'ud had as many as twenty-two wives (although only three or four simultaneously) and he fathered more than eighty (80) children. He was succeeded in 1953 by Prince Sa'ud, his eldest son.

Ibn Sa'ud was a tribal and Muslim religious leader who formed the modern state of Saudi Arabia and initiated the exploitation of its oil.

The Sa'uds ruled much of Arabia from 1780 to 1880.  However, while Ibn Saʿud was still an infant, his family, driven out by their rivals, the Rashids, became penniless exiles in Kuwait. In 1901, Ibn Saʿud, then 21, set out from Kuwait with 40 camelmen in a bold attempt to regain his family’s lands.

Reaching their old family capital, Riyadh, the little group slipped into the town by night (January 1902). The Rashidi governor slept in the castle but came out every morning after dawn. Ibn Saʿud lay hidden until the governor emerged. Then, rushing forward with his men, he killed the governor and seized the castle. This exploit roused the former supporters of his dynasty. They rallied to so magnetic a leader, and in two years of raids and skirmishes Ibn Saʿud reconquered half of central Arabia.

Ibn Rashid, however, appealed for help to the Turks, who sent troops. Ibn Saʿud suffered a defeat at their hands on June 15, 1904.  However, Ibn Sa'ud was not driven from central Arabia and soon reconstituted his forces. The years 1907 to 1912 passed with sporadic fighting. The Turks eventually left, unable to supply their troops.

Ibn Saʿud decided, in the years before World War I, to revive his dynasty’s support for Wahhabism, a Muslim puritan revival movement. Ibn Saʿud was in fact a devoted puritan Muslim— a devoted Wahhabi.  For Ibn Sa'ud, the Qurʾan was literally the word of God, and his life was regulated by it.  But Ibn Sa'ud was also aware that religious fanaticism could serve his ambition, and he deliberately fostered it, founding a militantly religious tribal organization known as the Ikhwan  (the Brethren). This fanatical brotherhood encouraged his followers to fight and to massacre their Arab rivals, and it helped him to bring many nomadic tribesmen under more immediate control.

Ibn Sa'ud was able to persuade the religious leaders to declare it a religious duty of all Wahhabis to abandon nomadism and to build houses at the desert wells. Thus settled, they could more easily be levied into his army. But the scheme was unrealistic.  Nomads who sold their flocks were often unable to cultivate and were reduced to penury. The destitution of the more fanatical tribes, however, made them more eager to raid, and Ibn Saʿud was not slow to suggest that they plunder the subjects of Ibn Rashid.

During World War I, Ibn Saʿud entered into a treaty with the British (December 1915), accepting protectorate status and agreeing to make war against Ibn Rashid, who was being supported by the Turks. However, despite British arms and a subsidy of £5,000 a month from the British government (which continued until 1924), Ibn Sa'ud remained inactive until 1920, arguing that his subsidy was insufficient. During 1920–22, however, he marched against Ibn Rashid and extinguished Rashidi rule, doubling his own territory but without significantly increasing his meager revenue.
By the end of 1922, Ibn Saʿud ruled central Arabia except for the Hejaz region along the Red Sea. This was the territory of Sharif Husayn of Mecca, who had become king of the Hejaz during the war and who declared himself caliph (head of the Muslim community) in 1924.  Sharif Ḥusayn’s son 'Abd Allah had become ruler of Transjordan in 1921, and another son, Faysal, king of Iraq. Ibn Saʿud, fearing encirclement by this rival dynasty, decided to invade the Hejaz. He was then at the height of his powers. Ibn Sa'ud's strong personality and extraordinary charm had won the devotion of all his subjects. A skillful politician, he worked closely with the religious leaders, who always supported him. Relying on the Ikhwan to eliminate his Arab rivals, Ibn Sa'ud sent them to raid his neighbors, then cabled the British, whose imperial interests were involved, that the raid was against his orders. In 1924, the Ikhwan took Mecca, and the Hejaz was added to his dominions.

At this point, there were no more rivals for Ibn Saʿud to conquer, for those remaining had treaties with Britain. However, the Ikhwan had been taught that all non-Wahhabi Muslims were infidels. When Ibn Saʿud forbade further raiding, they charged him with treachery, quoting his own words against him. In 1927, the Ikhwan invaded Iraq against his wishes. They were repulsed by British aircraft, but Ibn Saʿud’s authority over them had vanished. On March 29, 1929, the Ikhwan, the fanatics whom Ibn Sa'ud had trained, were crushed by Ibn Saʿud himself at the Battle of Sibilla.
This Battle of Sibilla opened a new era.  Thereafter, Ibn Saʿud’s task was government, not conquest.

Ibn Sa'ud had to first eliminate the right of his own father in order to rule, and then distance and contain the ambitions of his five brothers – particularly his oldest brother Muhammad who fought with him during the battles and conquests that had given birth to the state.

Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1938 by American geologists working for Standard Oil of California in partnership with Saudi officials. Through his advisers St. John Philby and Ameen Rihani, Ibn Sa'ud granted substantial authority over Saudi oil fields to American oil companies in 1944, much to the dismay of the British who had invested heavily in the House of Sa'ud's rise to power in hopes of open access to any oil reserves that were to be surveyed. Beginning in 1915, Ibn Sa'ud signed the "friendship and cooperation" pact with Britain to keep his militia in line and cease any further attacks against their protectorates for whom they were responsible. Not only did the British pay a generous monthly allowance for his cooperation, but in 1935 he was knighted into the Order of the Bath.
His new found oil wealth brought with it a great deal of power and influence that, naturally, Ibn Sa'ud would use to advantage in the Hijaz. He forced many nomadic tribes to settle down and abandon "petty wars" and vendettas. He also began widespread enforcement of the new kingdom's ideology, based on the teachings of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. This included an end to traditionally sanctioned rites of pilgrimage, recognized by the orthodox schools of jurisprudence, but at odds with those sanctioned by Abd al Wahhab. In 1926, after a caravan of Egyptians on the way to Mecca were beaten by his forces for playing bugles, he was impelled to issue a conciliatory statement to the Egyptian government. In fact, several such statements were issued to Muslim governments around the world as a result of beatings suffered by the pilgrims visiting the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. With the uprising and subsequent decimation thereafter of the Ikhwan in 1929 via British air power, the 1930s marked a turning point. With his rivals eliminated, Ibn Sa'ud's ideology was in full force, ending nearly 1400 years of accepted religious practices surrounding the Hajj, the majority of which were sanctioned by a millennia of scholarship.
Ibn Sa'ud established a Shura Council of the Hijaz as early as 1927. This Council was later expanded to 20 members, and was chaired by the king's son, Faisal.

Ibn Sa'ud was able to gain loyalty from tribes even nearby Saudi Arabia, tribes such as those in Jordan. For example, he built very strong ties with Prince Sheikh Rashed Al-Khuzai from the Al Fraihat tribe, one of the most influential and royally established families during the Ottoman Empire. Prince Rashed Al-Khuzai and his tribe had dominated eastern Jordan before the arrival of Sharif Hussein. Ibn Sa'ud supported Prince Rashed Al-Khuzai and his followers in rebellion against the Hussein.
Prince Rashed supported Izz ad-Din al-Qassam's Palestinian revolution in 1935 which led him and his followers in rebellion against King Abdullah of Jordan. And later in 1937, when they were forced to leave Jordan, Prince Rashed Al Khuzai, his family, and a group of his followers chose to move to Saudi Arabia, where Prince Al Khuzai was living for several years in the hospitality of Ibn Sa'ud.
Ibn Sa'ud positioned Saudi Arabia as neutral in World War II, but was generally considered to favor the Allies.  However, in 1938, when an attack on a main British pipeline in the Kingdom of Iraq was found to be connected to the German Ambassador, Dr. Fritz Grobba, Ibn Sa'ud provided Grobba with refuge. It was reported that he had been disfavoring the British as early as 1937.
In 1948, Ibn Sa'ud participated in the Arab-Israeli War. Saudi Arabia's contribution was generally considered token.
While the members of the royal family wanted heavenly gardens, splendid cars, and concrete palaces, Ibn Sa'ud wanted a royal railway from the Persian Gulf to Riyadh and then an extension to Jeddah. The shrine was regarded by all of the advisers living in the country as an old man's folly. Eventually, ARAMCO built the railway, at a cost of $70 million, drawn from the King's oil royalties. It was completed in 1951 and was used commercially after the king's death. It enabled Riyadh to grow into a relatively modern city. But when a paved road was built in 1962, the railway lost its traffic.
In 1932, Ibn Sa'ud formally unified his domains into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. An absolute monarch, he had no regular civil service or professional administrators. All decisions were made by him or by those he personally delegated for a particular task. There was little money, and he himself was not interested in finance. In May 1933, Ibn Saʿud signed his first agreement with an American oil company but it was not until March 1938 that the company struck oil, and work virtually ceased during World War II, so that Ibn Saʿud was again nearly penniless.

Saudi Arabia took no part in the war, but toward its end the exploitation of oil was resumed. By 1950, Ibn Saʿūd had received a total of about $200,000. Three years later, he was getting some $2,500,000 a week. The effect was disastrous on the country and on Ibn Saʿūd. He had no idea of what to do with all the money, and he watched helplessly the triumph of everything he hated. His austere religious views were offended. The secluded, penurious, hard, but idealistic, life of Arabia was vanishing. Such vast sums of money drew half the swindlers in the Middle East to his puritan religious sanctum.  Ultimately, Ibn Saʿud was unable to cope with financial adventurers. His last years were marked by severe physical and emotional deterioration. He died at Al-Ṭaʾif in 1953.

Alternative names include:  

'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman Al Sa'ud
'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Faysal ibn Turki 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad Al Sa'ud
'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Sa'ud
Abdul Aziz Al Saud
Abdul Aziz ibn Saud
Al Sa'ud
Al Sa'ud, 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Faysal ibn Turki 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad
Al Sa'ud, 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman
Al Saud, Abdul Aziz
Ibn Sa'ud
Ibn Sa'ud, 'Abd al-'Aziz
Ibn Saud, Abdul Aziz
Sa'ud, 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman Al
Sa'ud, 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Faysal ibn Turki 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad Al
Sa'ud, Abdul Aziz Al
Sa'ud, Al