Tuesday, July 9, 2013

008 - Ali, Noble Drew - Amanullah

Ali, Noble Drew
Ali, Noble Drew (Noble Drew Ali)  (Timothy Drew) (January 8, 1886 - July 20, 1929).   Founder of the Moorish Science Temple.  He was born Timothy Drew  in North Carolina.  Noble Ali is principally known for his role in establishing the first North American religious movement combining black nationalist and Muslim themes while rejecting Christianity as the religion of Europeans and European Americans.  

Timothy Drew was born on January 8, 1886 in North Carolina, USA. The accounts of Timothy Drew's ancestry variously describe his being the son of two former slaves who was adopted by a tribe of Cherokees or his being the son of a Moroccan Muslim father and a Cherokee mother.

His mother apparently died while Drew was a young boy, and left him to be raised by an abusive aunt. According to the Moorish Science account, at the age of 16 he befriended a band of Roma ("gypsies") with whom he traveled the world, although other accounts state he shipped out as a merchant seaman, became a railway expressman, or joined a circus and became a stage magician. Some researchers wonder whether Drew actually left the States at all.

Nevertheless, it was supposedly during his travels that Drew met the high priest of an Egyptian cult of magic. In one version of Drew's biography, the leader saw him as a reincarnation of the founder of the cult, while in others he considered him a reincarnation of Jesus. According to the biography, the cult trained him in mysticism and bestowed upon him a lost version of the life of Jesus.

This text came to be known as the Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America (note that this text is never spelled Qur'an). It is also known, somewhat more informally, as the Circle Seven Koran because of its cover, which features a red "7" surrounded by a blue circle.

Drew was anointed the Noble Drew Ali, the Prophet, and launched into his career as head of the Moorish Science Temple.

In 1913 Drew Ali formed the first Moorish Science Temple (Canaanite Temple) in Newark, New Jersey.  He taught that African Americans were “Asiatics” who had originally lived in Morocco before enslavement.  Every people, including African Americans, needed land for themselves, he proclaimed, and North America, which he termed an “extension” of the African continent, was the proper home for African Americans.  The holy book for the Moorish Science Temple was a “Holy Koran” which was “divinely prepared by the Noble Prophet Drew Ali.”  This “Holy Koran” was the creation of Noble Drew Ali and should not be confused with the Qur’an of orthodox Islam.   Every member of the Moorish Temple carried a card stating that “we honor all the Divine Prophets, Jesus, Muhammad, Buddha and Confucius” and “I AM A CITIZEN OF THE U.S.A.”

The formation of the Moorish Science Temple is believed to be the precursor to the reappearance of Islam among African Americans.  Noble Drew Ali taught that people of African descent were not Ethiopians, but the descendants of the Moabites of the Bible whose homeland was said to be Morocco. W. D. Fard, the founder of the Nation of Islam in the early 1930s, was originally a member of the Moorish Science Temple.

Forced to flee Newark because of his views on race, Drew Ali and his followers settled in Philadelphia, Washington D.C., and Detroit.

In the 1920s, the Moorish Science Temple expanded to Pittsburgh and Chicago.  Noble Drew Ali also started several small businesses, which he and his followers ran.

He settled in Chicago in 1925, ostensibly because the Midwest was "closer to Islam", and the following year he officially registered Temple No. 9.

In the late 1920s, it was estimated that the Moorish Temple had 15,000 members in 17 temples, despite coming under scrutiny, and possibly harassment, by the Chicago police. By 1928, the Moorish Temple members had indeed obtained some respectability within Chicago and Illinois, being featured prominently and favorably in the pages of the Chicago Defender, a black newspaper, and conspicuously collaborating with black politician and businessman Daniel Jackson. Drew even attended the 1929 inauguration of the Illinois governor. The Chicago Defender stated that Drew's inauguration trip ended "with interviews with many distinguished citizens from Chicago, who greeted him on every hand".

In early 1929, following a conflict over funds, the business manager of the Chicago Temple No.1 location, Claude Green Bey, a Booster's Club president splintered off, declaring himself Grand Sheik and taking a number of members with him. On March 15, 1929, Green Bey was stabbed to death at the Unity Hall on Indiana Avenue in Chicago. Although out of town at the time, dealing with a separate incident where former Supreme Grand Governor Lomax Bey had also aligned himself with Claude Green Bey's attempted coup, Drew Ali had returned to Chicago and was arrested as an instigator of Green Bey's murder, along with other members of the community. Allegedly beaten by police, Drew Ali was ultimately released as suspect in Green Bey's death, and there was no indictment upheld on Drew Ali at that time.

Shortly after his release, Drew Ali died at his home in Chicago on July 20, 1929. Although the exact circumstances of his death are unknown. the autopsy ruled that Noble Drew Ali died from pneumonia and tuberculosis. Many of his followers speculated that his death was caused by injuries received at the hands of the police or from being beaten by other members of the Moorish Temple community. However, one Moorish Temple community member told the Chicago Defender that "The Prophet was not ill; his work was done and he laid his head upon the lap of one of his followers and passed out".

At the Unity Conference later that year, the governors declared Charles Kirkman Bey as the successor to Drew Ali, naming him Grand Sheik. However, John Givens El, Drew's chauffeur, declared that he was Drew reincarnated, leading to a division within the temples.

On September 25, 1929, the Chicago police, accompanied by two Moorish Temple members, were investigating the apparent kidnapping of Charles Kirkman Bey when, at the home of Ira Johnson, they were met by gunfire from the home. This quickly escalated into a shoot-out that spilled out into the surrounding neighborhood. In the end, a policemen as well as a Moorish Temple member were killed in the gun battle, with a second policeman later dying of his wounds. Sixty "Negroes" were taken into police custody and a reported 1000 police officers patrolled the Chicago South Side that evening. Johnson Bey and two others were later convicted of murder.

The Moorish Science Temple did survive Noble Drew Ali’s death.  However, W. D. Fard's Nation of Islam was soon able to attract some of the Moorish Science Temple's followers and eventually displaced it as the pre-eminent black nationalist religion with Muslim themes.  

Noble Drew Ali see Ali, Noble Drew
Drew, Timothy see Ali, Noble Drew
Timothy Drew see Ali, Noble Drew

'Ali Sastroamidjojo
'Ali Sastroamidjojo (Ali Sastroamijoyo)  (May 21, 1903 - March 13, 1976).   Indonesian nationalist politician. Ali Sastroamidjojo, sometimes written Ali Sastroamijoyo, was the 8th and 10th Prime Minister of Indonesia. He was born in Grabag, Central Java on May 21, 1903 and died in Jakarta on March 13, 1976.

As a student in the Netherlands, 'Ali was arrested in 1927 for his activities in the nationalist Perhimpunan Indonesia Association.  In Indonesia, he was active in successive radical nationalist organizations, Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI), Partindo, and Gerindo.  He became a leader of the postwar PNI and headed two cabinets (July 1953-July 1955 and March 1956-March 1957).  One of the architects of Indonesia’s participation in the nonaligned movement, he hosted the Asian-African conference in Bandung in 1955.  Under Sukarno’s Guided Democracy he led the dominant left wing of the PNI but was removed from leadership in 1966.  

Sastroamidjojo, 'Ali see 'Ali Sastroamidjojo
Ali Sastroamijoyo see 'Ali Sastroamidjojo
Sastroamijoyo, Ali see 'Ali Sastroamidjojo

'Ali, Shaukat
'Ali, Shaukat (Shaukat 'Ali) (Maulana Shaukat Ali)  (1873-1938).  One of the leading Indian Muslim political activists of his generation.  He attended Aligarh College and gained renown in the Union debating society.  He entered government service in the Opium Department.  He took an active interest in the affairs of Aligarh College and its alumni association.  Shaukat’s first nationwide exposure came during his fundraising tours for Aligarh College in 1911.  Shaukat and his brother Mohamed became firm opponents of British rule under the combined shock of the Balkan wars, British refusal of university status to Aligarh College in 1912, and the Kanpur Mosque incident in 1913.  They were interned for four years during World War I for their pro-Turkish activities.  Released in 1919, they led the Khilafat movement and were imprisoned again in 1921.  

Maulana Shaukat Ali was an Indian Muslim nationalist and leader of the Khilafat movement. He was the brother of Maulana Mohammad Ali.  Shaukat Ali was born in 1873 in Rampur state in what is today Uttar Pradesh. He was educated at the Aligarh Muslim University. He was extremely fond of playing cricket, captaining the university team.

Ali served in the civil service of United Provinces of Oudh and Agra from 1896 to 1913.

Shaukat Ali helped his brother Mohammed Ali publish the Urdu weekly Hamdard and the English weekly Comrade. In 1919, while jailed for publishing what the British charged as seditious materials and organizing protests, he was elected as the first president of the Khilafat conference. He was re-arrested and imprisoned from 1921 to 1923 for his support to Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress during the Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922). His followers accorded him and his brother the title of Maulana. In March 1922, he was incarcerated in Rajkot jail.

Along with his brother, Shaukat Ali grew disilliusioned with the Congress and Gandhi's leadership. He opposed the 1928 Nehru Report, demanding separate electorates for Muslims, and attended the first and second Round Table Conferences in London. His brother died in 1931, and Ali continued on and organized the World Muslim Conference in Jerusalem.

In 1936, Ali joined the All India Muslim League and became a close political ally of and campaigner for Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the future founder of Pakistan. He served as member of the Central Assembly from 1934 to 1938. He travelled over the Middle East, building support for India's Muslims and the struggle for independence.

Shaukat Ali died in 1938.
Shaukat 'Ali see 'Ali, Shaukat
Maulana Shaukat Ali see 'Ali, Shaukat

'Ali, Sunni
'Ali, Sunni .  See Sunni 'Ali.

Alivardi Khan
Alivardi Khan (Ali Vardi Khan) (Mirza Muhammad 'Ali) (May 10, 1671 - April 16, 1756).  Title of Mirza Muhammad 'Ali, third generation Mughal mansabdar.  Backing a loser in the succession wars, he left the court for service under Shuja-ad-din Muhammad Khan in 1720, helped him become nawab of Bengal (July 1727), and was rewarded with the deputy governorship of Bihar in 1733.  From this power base he seized Bengal himself in 1740 and ruled ably, despite the devastating Maratha invasions of 1742 to 1751, until his death at Murshidabad on April 10, 1756.  Ali Vardi Khan was the independent Nawab of Bengal between 1740 and 1756.

Ali Vardi was born on the May 10, 1671. He was named Mirza Muhammad Ali, the son of Shah Quli Khan Mirza Muhammad Madani and the daughter of Nawab Aqil Khan Afshar .His official title was Shuja ul-Mulk, Husam ud-Daula, Nawab Muhammad Alahvirdi Khan Bahadur, Mahabat Jang, Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

Alivardi Khan was a Shiite Muslim and his father Mirza Muhammad Madani was an employee of Azam Shah, the son of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Azam Shah also employed the sons of Mirza Muhammad, but after the death of Azam Shah the family fell into poverty.

His two sons Muhammad Ali and Mirza Ahmed managed to find employment under Orissa's Subdedar Suza-ud-Din. After Suza-ud-din was promoted to nawab the two brothers' future prospects widened. In 1728, Suza-ud-din promoted Muhammad Ali to ‘Fauzdar’ (General) and entitled him as Ali Vardi. In 1733, he was assigned as Bihar’s assistant Subedar (governor).

Ali Vardi Khan however wanted to become the ruler of Bengal himself.  On April 29, 1740, he deposed Suza-ud-din, becoming Nawab of Bengal and also got recognition from Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah.

During his reign Bengal was attacked twice by the Nagpur Kingdom under Raghoji I Bhonsle in 1746 and 1750. This caused the loss of Cuttack to Nagpur in 1750.

Alivardi Khan died on April 16, 1756. His grandson Siraj-ud-Daula succeeded Ali Vardi Khan as the Nawab of Bengal in April 1756 at the age of 23.

Khan, Alivardi see Alivardi Khan
Mirza Muhammad 'Ali see Alivardi Khan
'Ali, Mirza Muhammad see Alivardi Khan

‘Ali Yaja ibn Tsamia
‘Ali Yaja ibn Tsamia. First Muslim ruler of the Hausa city-state of Kano (c.1349-1385).  During his rule, a foreign Muslim community established itself at Kano, probably as a result of the break-up of the Mali empire.  Although ‘Ali established Islamic offices alongside the traditional ones, Islam remained a foreign element in most of Kano until the reign of Muhammad Rumfa.

‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin
‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin (‘Abu Muhammadi ‘Ali ibn Husayn) ('Ali ibn Husayn) (approximately January 6, 659  - October 20, 712).  Fourth imam of Shi‘a Islam (r. 680 to 712).  Due to his weak health and inability to fight, he was the only son of Husayn to survive the massacre at Karbala.  He was taken as prisoner to Damascus but was freed by the Caliph Yazid and allowed to return to Medina.  He spent his life in seclusion, weeping over the martyrs at Karbala, for which he was named ‘as-Sajjad – “the prostrator.”  He did not involve himself in the politics of this time and was widely well regarded for his piousness.  Of other honorary titles for him, the most commonly used were Zaynu al-Abidin (“the ornament of the worshippers”) and ‘az-Zaki (“the pure”).   He was succeeded by Muhammad al-Baqir in both the Twelver and Isma‘ili traditions and by Zayd in the Zaydi tradition.

‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn is a great-grandson of Muhammad as well as the fourth Shī‘a Imām (the third Imām according to the Ṭayyibī [Bohra] Ismā‘ilī). His mother was Shahrbānū and his father was Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī. His brothers include ‘Alī al-Aṣghar ibn Ḥusayn and ‘Alī al-Akbar ibn Ḥusayn. He is known as Zayn al-Abidīn -- "Beauty/Best of the Worshippers". He is also referred to as Imām al-Sajjad -- "the Prostrating Imām" -- and Sayyid as-Sājjadīna wa r-Rāki‘īn -- "Leader of Those who Prostrate and Bow".

‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn was born in Medina. His father, Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī, was a grandson of Muhammad. His brothers were Ali Akbar ibn Husayn and Ali Asghar ibn Husayn. His sisters were Sakina bint Husayn and Fatimah Sughra bint Husayn

'Ali ibn Husayn dedicated his life to learning and became an authority on prophetic traditions and Shari'a. He is regarded as the source of the third holiest book in Shī‘ah Islam after the Qur'ān and the Nahj al Balagha: the Saḥīfa al-Sajjadiyya, commonly referred to as the Psalms of the Household of Muhammad. ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn had many supporters such as Sa‘īd ibn Jubayr.

'Ali ibn Husayn was beside his father right from the moment of his migration towards Karbala and followed his father, Husayn ibn Ali step by step.

A segment of the people who are unaware consider Ali ibn Husayn to have been a sick, handicapped, and a weak person. But they are mistaken because the illness of Ali ibn Husayn was an expedience and policy of Allah, so that he might remain safe from the harm of the enemy's sword, and become the living legacy of Karbala.

One of the special features of Ali ibn Husayn's character was his piety and abstinence.

‘Alī ibn Husayn, like his grandfather, cultivated land and palm date orchards.

As the son of Husayn ibn ‘Alī, he was under great scrutiny and could not directly guide those who secretly followed the household of Muhammad. But he conveyed his understanding of the relationship between human and God by the prayers and supplications that he offered God during his extensive nighttime vigils in the mosque of the Prophet in Medina. These prayers and supplications were written down and then disseminated by his sons and the subsequent generations. Among them is the Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which is known as the Psalms of Islam.

'Ali ibn Husayn looked after and administrated hundreds of houses of the poor and hunger stricken.
At the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura, Husayn ibn Ali and most of his family were killed. Ali ibn Husayn survived because he was too sick to fight, and was bedridden. Afterwards, he was taken prisoner by the Umayyad forces and transported to Damascus where he was made a prisoner of the Caliph, Yazid I. After some years, he was freed, and returned to Medina where he lived a quiet life as a scholar and a teacher.

‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn resided in Medina until his death on 25th of Muharram, 95 AH (approximately October 20, 712). He was poisoned by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. He was buried in Jannatul Baqee', the cemetery in Medina where other important figures of Islamic history are buried.

Abidin, 'Ali Zaynu al- see ‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin
'Abu Muhammadi  'Ali ibn Husayn see ‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin
Sajjad, 'as- see ‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin
“the prostrator”   see ‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin
“the ornament of the worshippers” see ‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin
Zaki, 'az see ‘Ali Zaynu al-Abidin

Allah (God).  Muslim name for the Supreme Being.  The term is a contraction of the Arabic "al-Lah",  “the God.”  Both the idea and the word existed in pre-Islamic Arabian tradition, in which some evidence of a primitive monotheism can also be found.  Although they recognized other, lesser gods, the pre-Islamic Arabs recognized Allah as the supreme God.  While Islam rejected the other pre-Islamic Arab deities, al-Lah was described as the one eternal, omnipotent God.  Al-Lah is therefore not a proper name, but rather a description.  The word Allah also came to be used by Arab Christians and the word Allah is used in the Arabic Bible  -- the Qur’an.

The Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, asserts that Allah is the creator and the one who rewards and punishes; that Allah is unique and can only be one; that Allah is eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and all-merciful.  The core of the religion is submission to the will of Allah; people must abandon themselves entirely to God’s sovereignty.

Although as creator Allah is utterly transcendent and not to be compared to any of Allah’s creatures, Allah is nevertheless a personal god, a fair judge, merciful and benevolent.  Each chapter of the Qur’an begins with “Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate,” and before fulfilling religious obligations the Muslim recites, “In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate.”

Islam does not admit of any mediator between Allah and humans.  A person approaches Allah directly in personal prayer and in reciting the Qur’an, which is considered literally the speech of Allah.  The prophets, who conveyed the word of Allah, are not considered in any way divine.

The name Allah is found in numerous inscriptions of the pre-Islamic period in both North and South Arabia.  It is of uncertain origin.  Some believe it is derived from a contraction of the definite article "al-" and the word for deity, "‘ilah", meaning “god”.  However, many Western scholars see an ultimate foreign origin for this formation in the Aramaic "elaha".

Allah was a central figure in the pre-Islamic pantheon, but Allah seems not to have been worshiped as the chief deity.  The Qur’an at Sura 53:19-20 mentions three deities who were apparently thought to be daughters of Allah: Manat, al-Lat, and al-‘Uzza, who were widely venerated.  This notion parallels the position of Baal in the Northwest Semitic pantheon.  

The Meccans regarded Allah as the creator and possibly the controller of the weather, a function which would seem appropriate for the head of a pantheon (see Sura 13:16; 29:61, 63; 31:25; 43:9-19).  It is uncertain as to what degree concepts of God derived from Judaism and Christianity had penetrated the pre-Islamic view of Allah, but it is known that several individuals abandoned paganism in favor of the monotheistic worship of Allah.  Those who chose monotheism were called Hanifs, a term also applied to the patriarch Abraham and were clearly influenced by Jewish and Christian doctrines, as is seen in the career of Waraqa ibn Nawfal, the cousin of Muhammad’s first wife, Khadija.  When the idea of Allah as a universal and transcendent God was introduced by Islam, the pre-Islamic Arabs are represented as aware of this notion, although rejecting it.

Muhammad rejected any definition that associated anything with Allah.  The creedal statement, “There is no deity except Allah,” which is said by millions of Muslims several times daily, is the essential condensation of the Qur’anic view.  Allah was for Muhammad the only reality, the Truth, the Creator, the Sustainer, the Possessor, the Destroyer, the Redeemer, who has all power and all might.  

Human relationships to Allah are subservient and contractual.  People are God’s servants.  All that they have is from God and their obligations are to God {Sura 23:60}.  In the Qur’an, God is seen as above God’s creation.  God is seen as directing the universe by God’s Will.  God guides whom God wills and leads into error whom God wills {Sura 13:27; 74:31}.  God seals the hearts of sinners {Sura 7:99-100}.  God is also the giver {Sura 3:8} and the provider {Sura 51:58}.  Humans are obligated to recognize this fundamental dependent relationship but are saved from arbitrary acts by God’s promise that whoever acts in accordance with the precepts of Islam will be properly rewarded.  

Mankind owes Allah gratitude, worship, and right conduct.  To be ungrateful is to be an unbeliever.  The Qur’an is filled with terminology describing personal relationships to Allah, and the notion of Islam itself, as a kind of peace deriving from the certitude of divine reward and punishment, is contrasted with the non-contractual uncertainty of paganism, in which the individual is subject to the whim and caprice of numerous deities whom it is impossible to please or appease.

In Islam, there are 99 names of God, but these should not be considered as proper names (the idea of actually naming God, for Muslims, is regarded as a way of reducing God into a human framework.  The high number of names must be understood as an expression of the incapacity of man to grasp the total nature of God.  Most common of the 99 names are ar-Rahman (“the Merciful”) and ar-Rahim (“the Compassionate”).  

While the term Allah is best known in the West for its use by Muslims as a reference to God, it is used by Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, in reference to "God". The term was also used by pagan Meccans as a reference to the creator-god, possibly the supreme deity in pre-Islamic Arabia.

The concepts associated with the term Allah (as a deity) differ among the traditions. In pre-Islamic Arabia amongst pagan Arabs, Allah was not considered the sole divinity, having associates and companions, sons and daughters - a concept which Islam thoroughly and resolutely abrogated. In Islam, the name Allah is the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. All other divine names are believed to refer back to Allah. Allah is unique, the only Deity, creator of the universe and omnipotent. Arab Christians today use terms such as Allāh al-ʼAb ("God the Father") to distinguish their usage from Muslim usage. There are both similarities and differences between the concept of God as portrayed in the Qur'an and the Hebrew Bible.
The term Allāh is derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article al- "the" and ʼilāh "deity, god" to al-lāh meaning "the [sole] deity, God" (ho theos monos). Cognates of the name "Allāh" exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic. The corresponding Aramaic form is ʼĔlāhā in Biblical Aramaic and ʼAlâhâ or ʼĀlōho in Syriac.

The contraction of al- and ʼilāh in forming the term Allāh ("the god", masculine form) parallels the contraction of al- and ʼilāha in forming the term Allāt ("the goddess", feminine form).

In pre-Islamic Arabia, Allah was used by Meccans as a reference to the creator-god, possibly the supreme deity.

Allah was not considered the sole divinity; however, Allah was considered the creator of the world and the giver of rain. The notion of the term may have been vague in the Meccan religion. Allah was associated with companions, whom pre-Islamic Arabs considered as subordinate deities. Meccans held that a kind of kinship existed between Allah and the jinn. Allah was thought to have had sons and that the local deities of al-ʻUzzá, Manāt and al-Lāt were His daughters. The Meccans possibly associated angels with Allah. Allah was invoked in times of distress. Muhammad's father's name was ‘Abdallāh meaning the “servant of Allāh.” or "the slave of Allāh"

According to Islamic belief, Allah is the proper name of God,] and humble submission to His Will, Divine Ordinances and Commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith. "He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind." "He is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent." The Qur'an proves that "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures."
In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God ("al-asma al-husna" literally meaning: "the best names") each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Merciful" (al-rahman) and "the Compassionate" (al-rahim).

Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase "insha' Allah" (meaning "God willing") after references to future events. Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of "bismillah"(meaning "In the name of God").

There are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored by Muslims, including "Subhan-Allah" (Holiness be to God), "Alhamdulillah" (Praise be to God), "La-il-la-ha-illa-Allah" (There is no deity but God) and "Allāhu Akbar" (God is great) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (zikr). In a Sufi practice known as zikr Allah (literally "remembrance of God"), the Sufi repeats and contemplates on the name Allah or other divine names while controlling his or her breath.

Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, use the word "Allah" to mean "God". The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for God than Allah. (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language of Malta, whose population is almost entirely Roman Catholic, uses "Allah" for "God".) Arab Christians for example use terms Allāh al-ʼab meaning God the father, Allāh al-ibn meaning God the son, and Allāh al-rūḥ al-quds meaning God the Holy Spirit

Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim basm-allah, and also created their own Trinitized basm-allah as early as the eight century of the Christian calendar. The Muslim basm-allah reads: "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." The Trinitized basm-allah reads: "In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God." The Syriac, Latin and Greek invocations do not have the words "One God" at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.
The history of the word "Allāh" in English was probably influenced by the study of comparative religion in 19th century; for example, Thomas Carlyle (1840) sometimes used the term Allah but without any implication that Allah was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muhammad (1934), Tor Andræ always used the term Allah, though he allows that this "conception of God" seems to imply that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies. By this time Christians were also becoming accustomed to retaining the Hebrew term "Yahweh" untranslated (it was previously translated as "the Lord").

Languages which may not commonly use the term Allah to denote a deity may still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, the word "ojalá" in the Spanish language and "oxalá" in the Portuguese language exist today, borrowed from Arabic. This word literally means "God willing" (in the sense of "I hope so").

God see Allah
Supreme Being see Allah
Rahman, ar- see Allah
"The Merciful" see Allah
Rahim, ar- see Allah
"The Compassionate" see Allah

‘Allal al-Fasi
‘Allal al-Fasi (Muhammad Allal al-Fassi) (January 10, 1910 – May 19, 1974).  Moroccan politician, writer, poet and Islamic scholar.

'Allal al-Fasi was born in Fes, Morocco, and founded the nationalist Istiqlal party which was a driving force in the Moroccan struggle for independence from French colonial rule. He broke with the party in the mid-1950s, siding with armed revolutionaries and urban guerrillas who waged a violent campaign against French rule, whereas most of the nationalist mainstream preferred a diplomatic solution. In 1956, as Morocco gained independence, he reentered the party, and famously presented his case for reclaiming territories that had once been Moroccan in the newspaper, al-Alam. In 1959, after the left-wing UNFP split off from Istiqlal, he became head of the party.

In 1962, 'Allal al-Fasi briefly served as Morocco's Minister of Islamic Affairs. He was elected to the Parliament of Morocco in 1963, and served there as an Istiqlal deputy. He then went on to become a main leader within the " opposition" during the 1960s and the start of the 1970s. He died in 1974, on a visit to Romania where he was scheduled to meet with Nicolae Ceauşescu.

In 1925 Al-Fasi published his first book of poems.  One of Allal al-Fasi's books (published in Arabic in 1948) was translated as The Independence Movements in Arab North Africa (1954).

Fasi, 'Allal al- see ‘Allal al-Fasi
Muhammad Allal al-Fassi see ‘Allal al-Fasi

Allenby, Edmund
Allenby, Edmund (Edmund Allenby) (Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby) (23 April, 1861 – 14 May, 1936).  British soldier and administrator most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918.  Allenby was arguably one of the most successful British commanders of the war, utilizing strategies he developed from his experiences in the Boer War and on the Western Front towards his Palestinian Campaigns of 1917-8. His management of the Battle of Megiddo in particular, with its brilliant use of infantry and mobile cavalry, is considered by many to be a precursor to the Blitzkrieg tactics so widely employed by Germany during World War II.

Alloula, Abdelkader
Abdelkader Alloula (Arabic: ‎عبد القادر علولة) (b. 1929 in Ghazaouet, Algeria - d. March 10, 1994 in Oran, Algeria) was an Algerian playwright. He was assassinated by Islamists. 
Alloula was born in Ghazaouet in western Algeria, and studied drama in France. He joined the Algerian National Theatre upon its creation in 1963 following independence. His works, typically in vernacular Algerian Arabic, included:
  • El-Aaleg (1969) - "The Leech", a satire of corrupt administration
  • El-Khobza (1970) - "Bread"
  • Homq Salim (1972) - "Salim's Madness", a monologue based on Nikolai Gogol's Diary of a Madman
  • Hammam Rabbi (1975) - "The Lord's Bath", based on Gogol's The Government Inspector
  • The Generous Trilogy:
    • El-Agoual (1980) - "The Sayings"
    • El-Adjouad (1984) - "The Generous"
    • El-Litham (1989) - "The Veil"
He was working on an Arabic version of Tartuffe when he was assassinated by two members of FIDA (Islamic Front for Armed Jihad) during Ramadan on March 10, 1994, as he left his house in Oran. His widow, Radja Alloula, and friends set up the Abdelkader Alloula Foundation in his memory.
His brother, Malek Alloula, was also a noted Algerian writer.

Almanzor.  See al-Mansur bi-’llah.

Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan (b. 1030).  The Great Seljuk (Saljuq) (r. 1064-1072).  He conducted campaigns against the Armenians and the Georgians and defeated the Byzantines in the battle of Malazgird.

Alp Arslan (1029 – December 15, 1072) was the second sultan of the Seljuk dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponym of the dynasty. He assumed the name of Muhammad bin Da'ud Chaghri when he embraced Islam, and for his military prowess, personal valor, and fighting skills he obtained the surname Alp Arslan, which means "a valiant lion" in Turkish.
Alp Arslan led Seljuk Turks to victory against the Byzantines in 1071.  He succeeded his father Chagri Begh as governor of Khorasan in 1059. When his uncle Toğrül died he was succeeded by Suleiman, Alp Arslan's brother. Alp Arslan and his uncle Kutalmish both contested this succession. Alp Arslan defeated Kutalmish for the throne and succeeded on April 27, 1064 as sultan of Great Seljuk, and thus became sole monarch of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.

In consolidating his empire and subduing contending factions he was ably assisted by Nizam ul-Mulk, his Persian vizier, and one of the most eminent statesmen in early Muslim history. With peace and security established in his dominions, he convoked an assembly of the states and declared his son Malik Shah I his heir and successor. With the hope of acquiring immense booty in the rich church of St. Basil in Caesarea Mazaca, the capital of Cappadocia, he placed himself at the head of the Turkish cavalry, crossed the Euphrates and entered and plundered that city. He then marched into Armenia and Georgia, which he conquered in 1064.

In 1068, en route to Syria, Alp Arslan invaded the Byzantine Empire. The emperor Romanos IV Diogenes, assuming the command in person, met the invaders in Cilicia. In three arduous campaigns, the first two of which were conducted by the emperor himself while the third was directed by Manuel Comnenos (great-uncle of Emperor Manuel Comnenos), the Turks were defeated in detail in 1070 and driven across the Euphrates. In 1071 Romanos again took the field and advanced with 40,000 men, including a contingent of the Cuman Turks as well as contingents of Franks and Normans, under Ursel of Bahol, into Armenia.

At Manzikert, on the Murad Tchai, north of Lake Van, Diogenes was met by Alp Arslan. The sultan proposed terms of peace, which were rejected by the emperor, and the two forces met in the Battle of Manzikert. The Cuman mercenaries among the Byzantine forces immediately defected to the Turkish side; and, seeing this, "the Western mercenaries rode off and took no part in the battle." The Byzantines were totally routed.

Emperor Romanos IV was himself taken prisoner and conducted into the presence of Alp Arslan, who treated him with generosity.  The terms of peace having been agreed to, dismissed him, loaded with presents and respectfully attended by a military guard. This famous conversation is recorded to have taken place after Romanos was brought as a prisoner before the Sultan:

Alp Arslan: "What would you do if I was brought before you as a prisoner?"
Romanos: "Perhaps I'd kill you, or exhibit you in the streets of Constantinople."
Alp Arslan: "My punishment is far heavier. I forgive you, and set you free."

Alp Arslan's victories changed the balance in near Asia completely in favor of the Seljuk Turks and Sunni Muslims. While the Byzantine Empire was to continue for nearly another four centuries, and the Crusades would contest the issue for some time, the victory at Manzikert signalled the beginning of Turkish ascendancy in Anatolia. Most historians date the defeat at Manzikert as the beginning of the end of the Eastern Roman Empire. Certainly the entry of Turkic farmers following their horsemen ended the themes in Anatolia which had furnished the Empire with men and treasure.
Alp Arslan's strength lay in the military realm. Domestic affairs were handled by his able vizier, Nizam al-Mulk, the founder of the administrative organization which characterized and strengthened the sultanate during the reigns of Alp Arslan and his son, Malik Shah. Military fiefs, governed by Seljuk princes, were established to provide support for the soldiery and to accommodate the nomadic Turks to the established Persian agricultural scene. This type of military fiefdom enabled the nomadic Turks to draw on the resources of the sedentary Persians and other established cultures within the Seljuk realm, and allowed Alp Arslan to field a huge standing army, without depending on tribute from conquest to pay his soldiery. He not only had enough food from his subjects to maintain his military, but the taxes collected from traders and merchants added to his coffers sufficiently to fund his continuous wars.

The dominion of Alp Arslan after Manzikert extended over much of western Asia. He soon prepared to march to the conquest of Turkestan, the original seat of his ancestors. With a powerful army he advanced to the banks of the Oxus. Before he could pass the river with safety, however, it was necessary to subdue certain fortresses, one of which was for several days vigorously defended by the governor, Yussuf el-Harezmi, a Khwarezmian. He was, however, obliged to surrender and was carried a prisoner before the sultan, who condemned him to a cruel death. Yussuf, in desperation, drew his dagger and rushed upon the sultan. Alp Arslan, who took great pride in his reputation as the foremost archer of his time, motioned to his guards not to interfere and drew his bow, but his foot slipped, the arrow glanced aside and he received the assassin's dagger in his breast. Alp Arslan died four days later from this wound on November 25, 1072 in his 42nd year, and was taken to Merv to be buried next to his father Çağrı Bey. Upon his tomb lies the following inscription:

“O those who saw the sky-high grandeur of Alp Arslan, behold! He is under the black soil now...”
As he lay dying, Alp Arslan whispered to his son that his vanity had killed him. "Alas," he is recorded to have said, "surrounded by great warriors devoted to my cause, guarded night and day by them, I should have allowed them to do their job. I had been warned against trying to protect myself, and against letting my courage get in the way of my good sense. I forgot those warnings, and here I lie, dying in agony. Remember well the lessons learned, and do not allow your vanity to overreach your good sense..."

Alp Arslan's conquest of Anatolia from the Byzantines is also seen as one of the pivotal precursors to the launch of the crusades.

From 2002 to July 2008 under Turkmen calendar reform, the month of August was named after Alp Arslan.

Both Alp and Alparslan (concatenated version of Alp Arslan) are among the most loved and used Turkish names in Turkey.

Arslan, Alp see Alp Arslan
"Valiant Lion" see Alp Arslan

Alp Takin
Alp Takin (Alp Tigin) (Alp Tegin) (d. 963).  Turkish slave commander who ruled in Ghazna.  Alp Takin (Persian: Alp Tegīn, Turkic for brave prince) was a general of Central Asian Turkic origin from Balkh who had risen from slave to general and eventually to the Governor of Khorasan based in Ghazni.

Later in a political fallout over succession of the Samanids he crossed the Hindu Kush mountains to capture Ghazni, located strategically between Kabul and Kandahar in modern Afghanistan on the road between Iran and India, where he established his independence.

Two military families arose from the Turkic Slave-Guards of the Samanids — the Simjurids and the Ghaznavids — who ultimately proved disastrous to the Samanids. The Simjurids received an appanage in the Kūhestān region of southern Khorasan and Alp Tigin founded the Ghaznavid fortunes when he established himself at Ghazna (now in Afghanistan) in 962.

When the Samanid Emir Abdul Malik I, died in 961 it created a succession crisis between Abdul Malik's brothers. He and Abu al-Hasan Simjuri, as Samanid generals, competed with each other for the governorship of Khorasan and control of the Samanid empire by placing on the throne emirs they could dominate. Abu al-Hasan died in 961, but a new rival Fa'iq rose and eventually Mansur I was elected by the court ministers, and having backed the wrong candidate Alp Takin retired from Khurasan to Ghazna, where he ruled as a largely independent sovereign, thus starting the Ghaznavid lineage in 962. Coins of the era however show that he still nominally acknowledged the Samanid authority.

Takin, Alp see Alp Takin
Alp Tigin see Alp Takin
Tigin, Alp see Alp Takin
Tegin, Alp see Alp Takin
Alp Tegin see Alp Takin
"Brave Prince" see Alp Takin

Aman Allah
Aman Allah (Amanollah Khan) (Amanullah) (Aman Ullah) (June 1, 1892 - April 25, 1960).  Amir (king) of Afghanistan (r.1919-1929).  During his reign, he gained Afghanistan’s political independence from Great Britain and launched an ambitious program of modernization, opposition to which cost him his throne.  

Aman Allah (June 1, 1892 – April 25, 1960) was the ruler of the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Amir and after 1926 as Shah. He led Afghanistan to independence over its foreign affairs from the United Kingdom, and his rule was marked by dramatic political and social change.

Born in 1892, he was the son of Amir Habibullah and Sarwar Sultanah, the Ulya Hazrat (the queen).  When Amir Habibullah was assassinated in Jalalabad (Jelalabad) in February 1919, Aman Allah was governor of Kabul and in possession of the arsenal and the treasury.  He convinced the army and the Afghan power elite to prefer his claim to that of his uncle and elder brothers.   He was crowned in Kabul over the prior claims of his uncle Nasrullah, whom he denounced as an usurper and an accomplice in the murder of his father.  

Aman Allah demanded a revision of the Anglo-Afghan agreements concluded by Amir Abdul Rahman that left Britain in charge of Afghanistan’s foreign relations in exchange for protection from unprovoked Russian aggression and a subsidy in money and military materiel.  British reluctance to accept a change in the status quo led to Afghan armed attacks, culminating in the start of the Third Anglo-Afghan War on May 3, 1919.  Britain was war-weary and in no condition to wage war on the Indian frontier and, after lengthy negotiations in Rawalpindi, Mussoorie, and Kabul, peace was restored, leaving Afghanistan free and independent from British control.  

Aman Allah became a national hero and turned his attention to reforming and modernizing his country. He established diplomatic and commercial relations with major European and Asian states; founded schools in which French, German, and English were the major languages of education; and promulgated a constitution which guaranteed the personal freedom and equal rights of all Afghans.  

The Soviet leader V. I. Lenin welcomed Aman Allah’s anti-colonial stand, extended diplomatic recognition, and offered material assistance and a treaty.  The Soviet policy of repression in Muslim Central Asia, however, quickly led to friction between the two states.  Aman Allah soon sought relations with countries that did not seem to have territorial designs on the area.  He established ties with France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Turkey, although he failed to initiate official relations with the United States.

Aman Allah assumed the title of king in 1926, and, as an ardent reformer, was a contemporary of like-minded Muslim rulers such as Muhammad Reza in Iran and Kemal Ataturk in Turkey.  Advised by Ottoman educated Afghans and impressed by Turkey’s example, Aman Allah embarked on his own scheme of development.  First, he gave the country its first constitution and three times convened the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly), composed of various segments of the power elite, to ratify his important decisions.  Second, he systematized the administrative divisions of the country into a territorial hierarchy of sub-districts, districts, and provinces.  The centrally appointed administrators at each level were assisted by a locally elected consultative body.  Third, he replaced tax farming with directly collected taxes in cash.  Fourth, he tolerated a free press, entrusted the intelligentsia with responsible positions in the government, and spent a major portion of the revenue of the state on the expansion of education.  

He built a new capital, named Darulaman ("Dar al-Aman" – “Abode of Peace”), which included a monumental parliament and other government buildings as well as villas of prominent Afghans.  Social reforms included a new dress code that permitted women in Kabul to go unveiled and encouraged officials to wear Western dress.

Modernization proved costly for Afghanistan and was resented by the traditional elements of Afghan society.  The Khost Rebellion, a tribal revolt in 1924, was suppressed, and Aman Allah felt secure enough to travel to Europe in December 1927.  However, upon his return he faced increasing opposition and, in 1928, an uprising of Shinwari tribesmen, followed by attacks of the Kohdamani and Kuhistani forces of Habibullah Kalakani, forced the reformer king into exile.  After an unsuccessful attempt at regaining the throne, he crossed the Indian border on May 23, 1929.  

Aman Allah was succeeded by Nadir Shah (r. 1929-1933).  As for Aman Allah, he settled in Italy and Switzerland until his death on April 26, 1960.  He was buried in Jalalabad at the side of the tomb of Amir Habibullah.  

Aman Allah was the third son of the Amir Habibullah Khan. When he helped assassinate his father on February 20, 1919, Aman Allah was already installed as the governor of Kabul and was in control of the army and the treasury. He quickly seized power, imprisoned any relatives with competing claims to the Kingship, and gained the allegiance of most of the tribal leaders.

Russia had recently undergone its Communist revolution, leading to strained relations between the country and the United Kingdom. Aman Allah recognized the opportunity to use the situation to gain Afghanistan's independence over its foreign affairs. He led a surprise attack against the British in India on May 3, 1919, beginning the third Anglo-Afghan war. After initial successes, the war quickly became a stalemate as the United Kingdom was still dealing with the costs of World War I. An armistice was reached in 1921, and Afghanistan became an independent nation.

Aman Allah enjoyed quite a bit of early popularity within Afghanistan and he used his influence to modernize the country. Aman Allah created new cosmopolitan schools for both boys and girls in the region and overturned centuries-old traditions such a strict dress codes for women. He increased trade with Europe and Asia. He also advanced a modernist constitution that incorporated equal rights and individual freedoms with the guidance of his father-in-law and Foreign Minister Mahmud Tarzi. His wife, Queen Soraya Tarzi played a huge role in regard to his policy towards women. Unfortunately, this rapid modernization created a backlash and a reactionary uprising known as the Khost rebellion was suppressed in 1924. He also met with many Bahá'ís in India and Europe where he brought back books that were prominently located in the Kabul library. This association later served as one of the accusations when he was overthrown.

At the time, Afghanistan's foreign policy was primarily concerned with the rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom. Each attempted to gain the favor of Afghanistan and foil attempts by the other power to gain influence in the region. This effect was inconsistent, but generally favorable for Afghanistan. Aman Allah was even able to establish a limited Afghan Air Force consisting of donated Soviet planes.

After Aman Allah travelled to Europe in late 1927, opposition to his rule increased. An uprising in Jalalabad culminated in a march to the capital, and much of the army deserted rather than resist. Through public support Habibullah Kalakani became the next king of Afghanistan. However, his rule was short lived and was soon replaced by Nadir Khan. In early 1929, Aman Allah abdicated and went into temporary exile in India. Aman Allah attempted to return to Afghanistan, however he had little support from the people. From India, the ex-king traveled to Europe and settled in Italy, and later in Switzerland. Meanwhile, Nadir Khan made sure his return to Afghanistan was impossible by engaging in a propaganda war. Nadir Khan accused Aman Allah Khan of kufr with his pro western policies.

Aman Allah Khan died in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1960. Very few of his many reforms were continued once he was no longer in power.

Amanollah Khan see Aman Allah
Amanullah see Aman Allah
Aman Ullah see Aman Allah

Amangkurat I
Amangkurat I.  Sultan of Mataram (r. 1646-1677).  He was the son and successor of Sultan Agung and the quintessential Javanese tyrant.  He attempted to centralize the administration and finances of the Mataram empire for his benefit but in doing so offended regional interests and deep-rooted Javanese political traditions of consultation, consensus, and the dispersal of economic, political, and military power.  One of his main administrative techniques was to murder his opponents.  This tyranny precipitated the greatest rebellion of seventeenth century Java, led by Trunajaya, which broke out in 1674 and culminated in the conquest of the court in 1677.  Amangkurat I died while fleeing the capital.  

Amangkurat I was the son of the powerful Sultan Agung. Upon taking the throne, he tried to bring long-term stability to the Sultanate of Mataram's realm, which was considerable in area but marred by continual rebellions. He murdered local leaders that were insufficiently deferential to him, including the still-powerful noble from Surabaya, Pangeran Pekik, his father-in-law, and closing ports and destroying ships in coastal cities to prevent them from getting too powerful from their wealth. To further his glory, the new king abandoned Karta, Sultan Agung’s capital, and moved to a grander red-brick palace in Plered (formerly the palace was built of wood).

By the mid-1670s dissatisfaction with the king was turning into open revolt, beginning from the recalcitrant Eastern Java and creeping inward. The crown prince (future Amangkurat II) felt that his life was not safe in the court after he took his father’s concubine with the help of his maternal grandfather, Pangeran Pekik of Surabaya, making Amangkurat I suspicious of a conspiracy among Surabayan factions to grab power in the capital by using Pekiks’ grandson’s powerful position as the crown prince. He conspired with Panembahan Rama from Kajoran, west of Magelang, who proposed a stratagem in which the crown prince financed Rama’s son-in-law, Trunajaya, to begin a rebellion in the East Java. Raden Trunajaya, a prince from Madura, lead a revolt fortified by itinerant fighters from faraway Makassar that captured the king's court at Mataram in mid-1677. The king escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram. Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunajaya looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in Kediri, East Java, leaving Puger in control of a weak court. Seizing this opportunity, Puger assumed the throne in the ruins of Plered with the title Susuhunan ing Alaga.

Soon after this episode, Amangkurat I died and was succeeded by his eldest son as king in 1677.

Amanollah Khan
Amanollah Khan. See Aman Allah.

Amanullah.  See Aman Allah.

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