Thursday, July 18, 2013

Kaysaniyya - Khalil, al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din


Kaysaniyya
Kaysaniyya (Mukhtariyya).  Name applied to those supporters of al-Mukhtar ibn Abi ‘Ubayd al-Thaqafi who recognized ‘Ali’s son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya as their Imam and as the Mahdi.


Mukhtariyya see Kaysaniyya


Kazakhs
Kazakhs.  See Cossack.  
Cossacks see Kazakhs.


Kazaruni, Shaykh Abu Ishaq
Kazaruni, Shaykh Abu Ishaq (Shaykh Abu Ishaq Kazaruni) (963-1033).  Founder of a Sufi order variously known as the Murshidiyya, Ishaqiyya or Kazaruniyya.  He is known for his charitable concern for the poor which was followed by all the branches of the order.
Shaykh Abu Ishaq Kazaruni see Kazaruni, Shaykh Abu Ishaq
Abu Ishaq Kazaruni see Kazaruni, Shaykh Abu Ishaq


Kazimi, ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-
Kazimi, ‘Abd al-Muhsin al- (‘Abd al-Muhsin al-Kazimi) (1865-1935).  Shi‘a poet of Iraq.  He is known as “the poet of the Arabs,” for he derives his images and metaphors from Bedouin life.
'Abd al-Muhsin al-Kazimi see Kazimi, ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-
Poet of the Arabs see Kazimi, ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-


Kazimi, ‘Abd al-Nabi al-
Kazimi, ‘Abd al-Nabi al- (‘Abd al-Nabi al-Kazimi) (1784-1840). Imami jurist and traditionist of Kazimayn.  The most important of his numerous works is a biographical dictionary of transmitters of Shi‘a hadith.
'Abd al-Nabi al-Kazimi see Kazimi, ‘Abd al-Nabi al-


Kazimi, Haydar ibn Ibrahim al-
Kazimi, Haydar ibn Ibrahim al- (Haydar ibn Ibrahim al-Kazimi) (1790-1849).  Imami scholar of Kazimayn.  He was the ancestor of the al-Haydar, a celebrated learned family of Kazimayn.
Haydar ibn Ibrahim al-Kazimi see Kazimi, Haydar ibn Ibrahim al-


Kazim Karabekir
Kazim Karabekir (Musa Kâzım Karabekir) (1882, Istanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara).  Turkish general and statesman.  In 1919, he was instrumental in organizing Turkish national forces to fight the War of Independence.  In 1924, he became a chief founder of the republican Progressive Party, and was considered one of the major potential rivals of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.

Musa Kâzım Karabekir was a Turkish general and politician. He was commander of the Eastern Army in the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I and served as Speaker of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey before his death.

Karabekir was born in 1882 as the son of an Ottoman General, Mehmet Emin Pasha, in the Koca Mustafa paşa quarter of Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. Karabekir family is a Seljukid Turkic military family.

He toured several places in the Ottoman Empire due to his father’s duty in the military. He returned to Istanbul in 1893 with his mother after his father’s death in Mecca. They settled in the Zeyrek quarter of Istanbul. Karabekir was put into Fatih military secondary school the next year. After finishing his school, he attended Kuleli military high school, from which he graduated in 1899. He continued his education at the military college in Istanbul, which he finished on December 6, 1902 at the top of his class.

After two months, the junior officer was commissioned in January 1906 to the Third Army in the region around Bitola in Macedonia. There, he was involved in fights with Greek and Bulgarian guerrillas. For his successful service, he was promoted to the rank of a Senior Captain in 1907. In the following years, he served in Istanbul and again in the Second Army in Edirne.

On April 15, 1911, Kâzım applied to change his family name from Zeyrek to Karabekir. Until that time, he was called Kâzım Zeyrek, after the place where he lived with his mother, a custom in the Ottoman Empire as family names were not used. From then on he adopted Karabekir, the name of his ancestors.

During his service in Edirne, Karabekir was promoted to the rank of a major on April 27, 1912. He took part in the First Balkan War against Bulgarian forces, but was captured during the Battle of Edirne-Kale on April 22, 1913. He remained a POW until the armistice signed on October 21, 1913.

Before the outbreak of World War I, Karabekir served a while in Istanbul and then was sent to some European countries like Austria, Germany, France and Switzerland. In July 1914, he returned home, as the signs for the upcoming of a war became apparent.

Back in Istanbul, Karabekir was assigned the chief of intelligence at the General Staff. Soon, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. After a short time at the southeastern front, he was sent to the Dardanelles. As commander of the 14th Division, Karabekir fought in the Battle of Gallipoli in the summer months of 1915. In October 1915, he was appointed chief staff officer at the First Army in Istanbul.

He was commissioned to the Iraqi front to join the Sixth Army. For his success in military activities in Gallipoli, he was decorated in December 1915 both by the Ottoman and German Command, and was contemporaneously promoted to the rank of Colonel. In April 1916, he took over the command of the 18th Corps, which gained a great victory over the British forces led by General Charles Townshend during the Siege of Kut-al Amara in Iraq.

Karabekir was appointed commander of the 2nd Corps at the Caucasian front and fought bitterly against the Russian and Armenian forces almost ten months. In September 1917, he was promoted to Brigadier General by a decree of the Sultan.

According to the Treaty of Sèvres, which ended World War I, Ottoman Sultan Mehmet Vahdettin gave Karabekir the order to surrender to Entente powers, which he refused. He stayed in the region and, on the eve of the Erzurum Congress when Mustafa Kemal had just arrived in Erzurum, Karabekir secured the city with a Cavalry Brigade in his command to protect him and the congressmen. He pledged with Mustafa Kemal to join the Turkish national movement and subsequently took the command of the Eastern front of the Turkish Independence War.

On November 15, 1920, the Turkish army under the command of Karabekir invaded the territory of the Armenian republic, which had expanded its territory and annexed parts of the territory of the defunct Ottoman Empire. The Turkish decisively defeated the Armenian forces, taking the towns of Kars and Sarıkamış, and capturing Alexandropol, a major center of the new Armenian republic. He then set his signature on a peace treaty, the Treaty of Alexandropol with the Democratic Republic of Armenia on December 2, 1920. He was designated by the newly formed parliament in Ankara to sign also the friendship agreement, the Treaty of Kars with the Soviet Union on October 23, 1921.

After the defeat of Greek forces in Western Anatolia, the Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Republic of Turkey) was proclaimed. Kâzım Karabekir Pasha moved to Ankara in October 1922, and continued to serve in the parliament as Deputy of Edirne. He was still the acting commander of the Eastern Army as he was elected Deputy of Istanbul on June 29, 1923. Six months later, he was appointed Inspector of First Army. The parliament awarded him the highest Turkish "Order of Independence" for his meritorious and distinguished service in military and politics during the War of Independence. He retired from his final military service on October 26, 1924.

Karabekir had differences of opinion with Mustafa Kemal about the realization of Atatürk's Reforms, one of the most important being the abolition of caliphate. Even though he agreed on the subject, he was of another opinion as Mustafa Kemal insisted on the immediate action. For Karabekir, the timing was improper, because British forces stood at the border of southeastern Turkey, claiming Kerkük in modern day Iraq. Karabekir did not believe that the caliphate should be abolished before solving this problem. Kurds, more radical in their shafi-sunni Islamic beliefs, began to rise up against the government, because they thought the government would lift the religion after the abolition. Struggling with this rebellion, Turkey agreed to leave Kerkük to Iraq, which was under the British mandate. Such conflicts prompted tensions between Karabekir and Mustafa Kemal.

On November 17, 1924, Karabekir co-founded the political movement "Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası" (Progressive Republican Party), and became its leader. Afterwards, Mustafa Kemal blamed Karabekir for the Kurdish rebellion and the assassination attempt made against him in İzmir, and the party was banned on June 5, 1925 by the government. Karabekir was imprisoned with many of his party members. Following these developments, all relations were broken between Karabekir and Mustafa Kemal.

Threatened with execution, Karabekir was forced to retire from politics. He devoted himself to writing his memories of the Turkish War of Independence and the reforms. However, all of his works were collected and burned on the orders of the Turkish government. Karabekir lived in fear of the police and the government until the death of Mustafa Kemal in 1938. İsmet İnönü Pasha, who was his close friend, rehabilitated him.

In 1939, Kâzım Karabekir returned to the parliament as Deputy of İstanbul. He was even elected as speaker of the parliament on August 5, 1946. Still in office, he died on January 26, 1948 in Ankara following a heart attack. His remains were later relocated to the Turkish State Cemetery in Ankara.

Kâzım Karabekir was succeeded by his wife İclal and three daughters Hayat, Emel and Timsal. The four-story mansion in the Erenköy quarter of Kadıköy district in İstanbul, where he lived for almost 15 years under house arrest, was converted in 2005 to a museum.

The works of Kazim Karabekir include:

    * Ankarada Savaş Rüzgarları (Winds of War in Ankara)
    * Bir Duello ve Bir Suikast (A Duel and An Assassination)
    * Birinci Cihan Harbi 1-4 (World War I 1-4)
          o Birinci Cihan Harbine Neden Girdik? (Why Did We Enter the World War I?)
          o Birinci Cihan Harbine Nasıl Girdik? (How Did We Enter the World War I?)
          o Birinci Cihan Harbini Nasıl İdare Ettik? (How Did We Manage the World War I?)
          o Birinci Cihan Harbini Nasıl İdare Ettik? (How Did We Manage the World War I?)
    * Cumhuriyet Tarihi Set 1 (History of the Republic Set 1)
    * Cumhuriyet Tarihi Set 2 (History of the Republic Set 2)
    * İstiklal Harbimiz 1-5 (Our War of Independence 1-5)
    * Paşaların Kavgası (Struggle of the Pashas)
    * Paşaların Hesaplaşması (Revenge of the Pashas)
    * Cehennem Değirmeni 1-2 (Windmill of Hell 1-2)
    * İzmir Suikasti (Assassination in İzmir)
    * Çocuklara Öğütler (Advice to Children)
    * Hayatım (My Life)
    * İttihat ve Terraki Cemiyeti 1896-1909 (Committee of Union and Progress 1896-1909)
    * Ermeni Dosyası (Armenian Dossier)
    * İngiltere, İtalya ve Habeş Harbi (British, Italian and Ethiopian War)
    * Kürt Meselesi (Kurdish Problem)
    * Çocuk, Davamız 1-2 (The Child, Our Problem 1-2)
    * İstiklal Harbimizin Esasları (Principals of Our War of Independence)
    * Yunan Süngüsü (Greek Bayonet)
    * Sanayi Projelerimiz (Our Industrial Projects)
    * İktisat Esaslarımız (Our Principals of Economy)
    * Tarihte Almanlar ve Alman Ordusu (Germans in the History and German Army)
    * Türkiye’de ve Türk Ordusunda Almanlar (Germans in Türkiye and in the Türk Army)
    * Tarih Boyunca Türk-Alman İlişkileri (Türk German Relations Throughout the History)
    * İstiklal Harbimizde İttihad Terraki ve Enver Paşa 1-2 (Union Progress and Enver Pasha in Our War of Independence)
    * İstiklal Harbimizin Esasları Neden Yazıldı? (Why Was the Principals of Our War of Independence Written?)
    * Milli Mücadelede Bursa (Bursa During the War of Independence)
    * İtalya ve Habeş (Italy and Ethiopia)
    * Ermeni Mezalimi (Armenian Outrage)
    * Sırp-Bulgar Seferi (Serbian-Bulgarian Campaign)
    * Osmanlı Ordusunun Taaruz Fikri (Attack Concept of the Ottoman Army)
    * Erkan-i Harbiye Vezaifinden İstihbarat (Intelligence from the Service at General Staff)
    * Sarıkamış-Kars ve Ötesi (Sarıkamış, Kars and Beyond)
    * Erzincan ve Erzurum'un Kurtuluşu (Liberation of Erzincan and Erzurum)
    * Bulgaristan Esareti -Hatıralar, Notlar (Captivity in Bulgaria -Memories, Notes)
    * Nutuk ve Karabekir'den Cevaplar (The Address and Replies From Karabekir)

Karabekir, Kazim see Kazim Karabekir
Musa Kâzım Karabekir see Kazim Karabekir


Kazim Qadri, Husayn
Kazim Qadri, Husayn (Husayn Kazim Qadri) (1870-1934).  Turkish writer and lexicographer.  His major work is a comprehensive Turkish dictionary in four volumes.  
Qadri, Husayn Kazim see Kazim Qadri, Husayn
Husayn Kazim Qadri see Kazim Qadri, Husayn


Kazim Rashti
Kazim Rashti (Sayyid Kazim Rashti) (Sayyid Kāẓim bin Qāsim al-Ḥusaynī ar-Rashtī) (Siyyid Kázim Rashtí) (1793/1798-1843).  Leader of the Shaykhi sect in Persia after the death of its founder, Shaykh Ahmad Ahsa’i.

Sayyid Kāẓim bin Qāsim al-Ḥusaynī ar-Rashtī was the son of Sayyid Qasim of Rasht, a town in northern Iran. He was appointed as the successor of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i, and led the Shaykhí movement until his death.

He came from a family of well known merchants. He was a Mullah who, after study of the Islamic writings, told his students about the coming of the Mahdi and the "Masih" (the return of Christ) and taught them how to recognize them. After his death in 1843, many of his students spread out around Asia, Europe and Africa for the search.

Upon his death he was laid to rest near the tomb of Imam Husayn in Karbala.

On the death of Sayyid Kazim on December 31, 1843, some Shaykhis went on to become Bahais and the rest split into three factions. It is reported that before dying, instead of appointing a successor, he sent his disciples out to find the Promised One.


Sayyid Kazim Rashti see Kazim Rashti
Kazim Rashti, Sayyid see Kazim Rashti
Rashti, Sayyid Kazim see Kazim Rashti
Sayyid Kāẓim bin Qāsim al-Ḥusaynī ar-Rashtī see Kazim Rashti
Siyyid Kázim Rashtí see Kazim Rashti


Kecil, Raja
Kecil, Raja.  Leader of the Minangkabau rebels who captured the regalia of Johor in 1718.  He claimed to be the posthumous son of the murdered Sultan Mahmud, but in all probability he was a Minangkabau adventurer who used to his advantage the relative instability of the newly established Bendahara dynasty and the resentment that its efforts to strengthen its control over Johor had aroused.  Claiming connections with both the old Melaka dynasty and the Minangkabau court at Pagar Ruyong, Kecil won over the Orang Laut who manned the Johor fleet and deposed Abdul Jalil.  Although he was driven from Johor by Tun Mahmud’s nephew and the Bugis, he kept Siak and became the staunchest enemy of the growing Buginese power in the Melaka Straits, opposing them in Kedah and elsewhere.  
Raja Kecil see Kecil, Raja.


Kedang
Kedang (locally pronounced “edang”).  Small ethnic group at the extreme east of the island of Lembata (Lomblen) in the Solor Archipelago of eastern Indonesia.  Together with the much more numerous Lamaholot, they make up the East Flores Regency in the Province of east Southeast Islands.  About half of the Kedang are Muslims.  

Unlike the Lamaholot, the Kedang enter only rarely and fleetingly into historical records prior to the twentieth century.  The log of Magellan’s ship Victoria, which passed the island in January 1522, records the name of Kalikur, a politically important village on the north coast which offered some harbor facilities. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Dutch threatened Kalikur with two gunboats, forcing the leading family to acknowledge itself as a vassal of the Raja of Adonara.  The Dutch then recognized the head of this family as the leader of all the Kedang and employed their military strength to insure that the Kedang accepted him as such.  

Islam appears to have had little impact on Kedang until early in the nineteenth century, when Muslim Lamaholot settlers from Lamahala, Adonara, established a colony of Dololong.  The religion was largely confined to Dololong and principal families of Kalikur until around 1931, when Muslims from Kalikur began proselytizing in the interior.  

Catholic missionaries first started working Kedang in the early part of the 1920s.  Islamic proselytizing efforts were a direct response to their advances.  Whereas initislly Catholicism was spread by Europeans of various nationalities in the Divine Word Society, Islam (Sunni) came to Kedang through the agency of the Lamholot and perhaps other Indonesians.




Edang see Kedang


Kemal, Mehmed Namiq
Kemal, Mehmed Namiq  (Mehmed Namiq Kemal) (Namık Kemal) (Mehmed Kemal) (Mehmet Namik Kemal) (Mehmed Namiq Kemal) (December 2, 1840 - December 2, 1888).  Ottoman poet, journalist, historian and critic.  Among his many works are monographs about the great men of Ottoman and Islamic history.   

Namik Kemal was born in 1840 in the small town of Tekirdag, but his life was shaped by more exalted influences, including his family’s tradition of state service, immersing him in Ottoman culture at an early age.  His own career in the Ottoman bureaucracy brought him into contact with Western culture, especially through the medium of works in French.  He was born in the year after the proclamation of the Tanzimat rescript of 1839, which inaugurated an era of Western inspired political, social, and economic reform in the Ottoman Empire.  The Tanzimat also promoted a new diplomatic policy built on concerns for the stability of the Ottoman state felt by officials who were architects of the reform movement, among them the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Grand Vizier Mustafa Resid Pasha and his successors Ali and Fuad Pasha.  Through their control of reform, this new westernizing political elite established control over the formation of all state policy.  Namik Kemal was primarily involved in formal criticism that these policies had relegated the sultan to the background, but the substance of his criticism was an attempt to show that government by an elite was illegitimate according to both Islamic and Western principles.

Namik Kemal received his education from private tutors and assumed a position in the bureaucracy in 1859.  Between 1861 and 1867, he was employed in the Translation Bureau of the Ottoman Porte.  Kemal also took over the editing of Tasvir-i efkar, a newspaper that had initiated socio-political commentary about the empire.  Its former editor Sinasi Efendi fled Turkey in 1865, and Kemal’s stance became more clearly political.  Kemal was also among the founders of a conspiratorial anti-government group organized in Istanbul with the aim of bringing modern constitutional and parliamentary institutions into the empire.

In 1867, the government became uneasy with Kemal’s criticism in Tasvir of its conduct of foreign affairs that urged a more forceful defense of Ottoman interests against the European powers.  Kemal was appointed assistant governor for the province of Erzurum.  Instead of accepting the appointment he left Turkey for Paris and London with his friend Ziya Bey (later Pasha) and began the publication of a newspaper, the Hurriyet.  Hurriyet continued the tradition set by Tasvir, outspokenly criticizing the Ottoman government for its lack of direction and its autorcratic policies.  The ideas he proclaimed were known in the West as those of the Jeune Turquie.  The group, however, referred to itself as the New (or Young) Ottoman Society.  Its members had been helped to flee Turkey and to establish the newspaper by an Ottoman Egyptian, Prince Mustafa Fazil Pasha, who had independently warned the sultan of the necessity for democratic reforms.

Dissension soon arose among the editors and Kemal returned to Istanbul in 1870.  His writings thereafter appeared in Ibret, another newspaper with a political slant, but one much more focused on questions of culture and Ottoman identity.  Shortly after his return he was appointed to an administrative post in Gelibolu (1872) in order to deflect the criticism that his natural journalistic ability made so effective.  He returned to Istanbul shortly thereafter to resume his publishing activities. When he returned, his most famous work, "Vatan Yahut Silistre", was staged at the Gedikpaşa Theatre in Istanbul on April 1, 1873. The play promoted nationalism and liberalism, and was considered dangerous by the Ottoman government. Immediately afterward, on April 9, 1873, he was sent into exile by the Ottoman Sultan and imprisoned in Cyprus. He was pardoned by Murat V on June 3, 1876, and returned to Istanbul on June 29, 1876. He later became the governor of Sakız (now Chios, Greece), where he died in 1888.

Kemal’s political ideas are a mixture of traditional Islamic concepts and the libertarian theories common in the Europe of his time.   The association of pro-democratic Ottoman Turkish intellectuals, the Young Ottoman Society, however, was a heterogeneous group.  Another of its leaders was Ziya Pasha, a somewhat older bureaucrat and poet who generally shared Kemal’s political opinions and also his theories concerning language.  The latter stated that the Turkish used by the cultural and political elite had to be shorn of its flowery embellishments derived from Arabic and Persian roots, which were little used by most people.  The new approach of Kemal and Ziya was aimed primarily at communicating with the “man in the street,” but it also implies pursuit of a cultural identity more clearly Turkish than Arabic.  Ziya Pasha’s poetry and political ideas were much more conservative than Kemal’s, although he was a constitutionalist.  His verse also showed the influence of more traditional models.  Other members of the Young Ottomans such as the autodidact Ali Suavi also constructed divergent theories for their own times.

It is through his impassioned patriotic poetry that Mehmet Namik Kemal is best remembered by the current generation of Turks.  Part of this was due to an image created in modern times.  The Turkish Republic (established in 1923) made a somewhat biased use of Namik Kemal, highlighting those aspects of his thought that focused on the defense of the fatherland.  In fact, this use of patriotism was more in tune with the Turkish nation-state that emerged after World War I than with the multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire.  The Turkish Republic completely ignored in its praise Kemal’s concern that ideas of constitutionalism should be harmonized with Islam.

Some of Namik Kemal's most famous works are "Rüya", "Zavallı Çocuk", "Kerbela", "Akif Bey", "Gülnihal", "İntibah" and "Emir Nevruz". Some were published with pseudonyms, and others were published anonymously.

In 1867, he published an article in which he ascribed the Muslim world's inferiority to the West to its norms for relations between the sexes: "The reason for backwardness is the way we treat our women, treating them only as suitable for producing children and nothing else."

Kemal's patriotic writings became a source of inspiration for Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement and the founder of the Republic of Turkey.

Mehmed Namiq Kemal see Kemal, Mehmed Namiq
Namık Kemal see Kemal, Mehmed Namiq
Mehmed Kemal see Kemal, Mehmed Namiq
Mehmet Namik Kemal see Kemal, Mehmed Namiq
Mehmed Namiq Kemal see Kemal, Mehmed Namiq


Kemal, Mehmet Namik
Kemal, Mehmet Namik.  See Kemal, Mehmed Namiq.


Kemal, Mustafa
Kemal, Mustafa. See Ataturk.


Kemal, Pasha-zade
Kemal, Pasha-zade (Ibn Kemal) (Kemal Pasha-zade) (1468- April 16, 1534). Ottoman scholar and Shaykh al-Islam.  He wrote in Turkish, Persian and Arabic in the fields of history, belles-lettres, grammar, theology, and law.


Pasha-zade Kemal see Kemal, Pasha-zade
Ibn Kemal see Kemal, Pasha-zade
Kemal Pasha-zade see Kemal, Pasha-zade


Kemal Re’is
Kemal Re’is (Ahmed Kemaleddin) (c. 1451-1511).  Turkish corsair and admiral.  He gained great fame through his corsair activities in the western Mediterranean.  In 1495, the Ottoman sultan Bayazid II took him and his nephew Piri Re’is into Ottoman serv

Kemal Reis was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. He was also the paternal uncle of the famous Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis who accompanied him on most of his important naval expeditions.

Kemal Reis was born in Gallipoli on the Aegean coast of Turkey around 1451. His full name was Ahmed Kemaleddin and his father was a Turk named Ali from the city of Karaman in central Anatolia. He became known in Europe, particularly in Italy and Spain, with names like Camali and Camalicchio.

Kemal Reis started his career as the commander of the naval fleet belonging to the Sanjak Bey (Provincial Governor) of Euboea (Turkish: Eğriboz) which was under Ottoman control. In 1487 the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II appointed Kemal Reis with the task of defending the lands of Emir Abu Abdullah, the ruler of Granada, which was then one of the final Muslim strongholds in Spain. Kemal Reis sailed to Spain and landed an expeditionary force of Turkish troops at Malaga, capturing the city and the surrounding villages and taking many prisoners. From there he sailed to the Balearic Islands and Corsica, where he raided the coastal settlements, before landing his troops near Pisa in Italy. From Pisa he once again went to Andalucia and on several occasions between 1490 and 1492 transported the Muslims and Jews who wished to escape Spain to the provinces of the Ottoman Empire which welcomed them. The Muslims and Jews of Spain contributed much to the rising power of the Ottoman Empire by introducing new ideas, methods and craftsmanship. Kemal Reis continued to land his troops in Andalucia and tried to stop the Spanish advance by bombarding the ports of Elche, Almeria and Malaga.

In 1495, Kemal Reis was made an admiral of the Ottoman Navy by Sultan Bayezid II who ordered the construction of his large flagship, Göke, which could carry 700 soldiers and was armed with the strongest cannons of that period. Two large galleys of this type were built, one for Kemal Reis and the other for Burak Reis. In October 1496, with a force of 5 galleys, 5 fustas, a barque and a smaller ship, Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul and raided the Gulf of Taranto. In January 1497, he landed at Modon and later captured several Venetian ships at the Ionian Sea and transported them, along with their cargo, to Euboea. In March 1497, Sultan Bayezid II appointed him with the task of protecting the ships which carried valuable goods belonging to the religious foundations of Mecca and Medina from the frequent raids of the Knights of St. John who were based in the island of Rhodes at that time (in 1522 the Ottomans captured Rhodes and allowed the Knights of St. John to peacefully leave the island, who first relocated their base to Sicily and later to Malta in 1530.) Kemal Reis set sail towards Rhodes with a force of 2 barques and 3 fustas, and captured a barque of the knights near Montestrato. He later landed at Stalimene (Lemnos) and from there sailed towards Tenedos (Bozcaada) and returned to Istanbul. In June 1497 he was given two more large galleys and in July 1497 he made the island of Chios his base for operations in the Aegean Sea against the Venetians and the Knights of St. John. In April 1498, commanding a fleet of 6 galleys, 12 fustas with large cannons, 4 barques and 4 smaller types of ships, he set sail from the Dardanelles and headed south towards the Aegean islands that were controlled by the Republic of Venice. In June 1498 he appeared in the island of Paros and later sailed towards Crete where he landed his troops at Sitia and captured the town along with the nearby villages before sending his scout forces to examine the characteristics of the nearby Venetian castle. In July 1498 he sailed to Rosetta (Rashid) in Egypt with a force of 5 galleys, 6 fustas and 2 barques for transporting 300 Muslim pilgrims heading for Mecca, who also had with them 400,000 gold ducats which were sent to the Mameluke sultan by Bayezid II. Near the port of Abu Kabir he captured 2 Portuguese ships (one galleon and one barque) after fierce fighting which lasted 2 days. From there Kemal Reis sailed towards Santorini and captured a Venetian barque, before capturing another Portuguese ship in the Aegean Sea.

In January 1499, Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with a force of 10 galleys and 4 other types of ships, and in July 1499 met with the huge Ottoman fleet which was sent to him by Davud Pasha and took over its command in order to wage a large scale war against the Republic of Venice. The Ottoman fleet consisted of 67 galleys, 20 galliots and about 200 smaller vessels. In August 1499 Kemal Reis defeated the Venetian fleet under the command of Antonio Grimani at the Battle of Zonchio which is also known as the Battle of Sapienza of 1499 or the First Battle of Lepanto and was a part of the Ottoman-Venetian Wars of 1499-1503. It was the first naval battle in history with cannons used on ships, and took place on four separate days: on August 12, 20, 22 and 25, 1499. After reaching the Ionian Sea with the large Ottoman fleet, Kemal Reis encountered the Venetian fleet of 47 galleys, 17 galliots and about 100 smaller vessels under the command of Antonio Grimani near Cape Zonchio and won an important victory. During the battle Kemal Reis sank the galley of Andrea Loredan, a member of the influential Loredan family of Venice. Antonio Grimani was arrested on September 29 but was eventually released. Grimani later became the Doge of Venice in 1521. The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II gifted 10 of the captured Venetian galleys to Kemal Reis, who stationed his fleet at the island of Cefalonia between October and December, 1499.

In December 1499 the Venetians attacked Lepanto with the hope of regaining their lost territories in the Ionian Sea. Kemal Reis set sail from Cefalonia and retook Lepanto from the Venetians. He stayed in Lepanto between April and May 1500, where his ships were repaired by an army of 15,000 Ottoman craftsmen brought from the area. From there Kemal Reis set sail and bombarded the Venetian ports on the island of Corfu, and in August 1500 he once again defeated the Venetian fleet at the Battle of Modon which is also known as the Second Battle of Lepanto. Kemal Reis bombarded the fortress of Modon from the sea and captured the town. He later engaged with the Venetian fleet off the coast of Coron and captured the town along with a Venetian brigantine. From there Kemal Reis sailed towards the Island of Sapientza (Sapienza) and sank the Venetian galley "Lezza". In September 1500 Kemal Reis assaulted Voiussa and in October he appeared at Cape Santa Maria on the Island of Lefkada before ending the campaign and returning back to Istanbul in November. With the Battle of Modon, the Turkish fleet and army quickly overwhelmed most of the Venetian possessions in Greece. Modon and Coron, the "two eyes of the Republic", were lost. Turkish cavalry raids reached Venetian territory in northern Italy, and, in 1503, Venice again had to seek peace, recognizing the Turkish gains.

In January 1501, Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with a fleet of 36 galleys and fustas. In February 1501 he landed at the Island of Euboea and at Nafplion before heading towards Corfu in March and from there to the Tyrrhenian Sea where he captured the Island of Pianosa along with many prisoners. In April 1501, with a fleet of 60 ships he landed at Nafplion and Monemvasia, causing the Venetian regional commander based at Corfu to call back the Venetian ships heading towards Lebanon and the Levant in order to strengthen the defenses of the Repubblica Serenissima's remaining strongholds on Morea. In May 1501, with a force of 8 galliots and 13 fustas, he escorted the cargo ships carrying construction material for strengthening the Ottoman fortresses on the islands of Chios and Tinos, where he captured the galley of Girolamo Pisani, the local Venetian commander, including the official standard of San Marco (St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice) along with another Venetian galley named "Basadonna". From there he sailed to the port of Zonchio, near Navarino, with a force of 5 galliots and 14 fustas. The Turks landed there and captured the Venetian castle and the nearby settlements after a siege which lasted less than 10 hours. Kemal Reis also captured 3 Venetian galleys, a Venetian caravelle and several other local ships which were docked at the port of Zonchio. He took these ships first to Modon and later to the Island of Aegina, before sailing towards Euboea. He later captured Navarino from the Venetians, adding another important port to the Ottoman Empire. In June 1501 Kemal Reis sailed to the Adriatic Sea and strengthened the Turkish defenses at Voiussa and Vlorë.

In July 1501, Kemal Reis, accompanied by his nephew Piri Reis, set sail from the port of Modon with a force of 3 galleys and 16 fustas and went to the Tyrrhenian Sea, where he took advantage of the war between Jacopo d'Appiano, ruler of Piombino, and the Papal forces under the command of Cesare Borgia. The Turks landed at the Island of Pianosa and quickly captured it, taking many prisoners. From there Kemal Reis sailed to the Channel of Piombino and the Turks raided the coastal settlements in that area. In August 1501, Kemal Reis and his troops landed at Sardinia and captured several coastal settlements while taking around 1,050 prisoners during fights against the local forces. He engaged several Genoese warships off the coast of Sardinia, which later escaped northwards after being damaged by cannon fire. Still in August 1501 Kemal Reis sailed to the Balearic Islands and the Turks landed at Majorca, where bitter fighting against the local Spanish forces took place. From there Kemal Reis sailed to Spain and captured 7 Spanish ships off the coast of Valencia. Aboard these ships he found a strange feather headdress and an unfamiliar black stone. He was told by one of his prisoners that both came from newly discovered lands to the west, beyond the Atlantic Ocean. The prisoner claimed to have visited these lands three times, under the command of a man named Colombo, and that he had in his possession a chart, drawn by this Colombo himself, which showed the newly discovered lands beyond the Sea of Darkness. This map was to become one of the main source charts of the famous Piri Reis map of 1513 which was drawn by the Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis who was the nephew of Kemal Reis.

After leaving Valencia, still in August 1501, Kemal Reis headed south and bombarded the coastal defenses of Andalucia before landing his troops, where the Turks raided several ports and towns. Kemal Reis later sailed westwards and passed the Strait of Gibraltar and entered the Atlantic Ocean, where he and his men raided the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula. From there Kemal Reis sailed southwest and landed on several of the Canary Islands, where the Turks faced moderate opposition from the Spanish forces. Piri Reis used the occasion, as in other voyages with his uncle, to draw his famous portolan charts which were later to become a part of the renowned Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation). Kemal Reis later turned eastwards, where he followed the Atlantic coastline of Morocco and re-entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar, landing on several ports of Morocco and Algeria on the way. From there Kemal Reis headed further east and captured several Genoese ships off the coast of Tripoli in Libya. He also intercepted several Venetian galleys in the area before sailing back to Istanbul.

In May 1502, Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with a fleet of 50 ships and headed towards Euboea. In June 1502, he captured the Island of Kos along with the Castle of San Pietro which belonged to the Knights of St. John. From there he sailed to Nafplion and bombarded its port until being called for assisting the defense of Mytilene which was sieged by a joint Venetian-French fleet. In July 1502 he landed his forces on Lesbos and fought against the French soldiers in Mytilene which the Ottomans had earlier taken from the Genoese in 1462. In August 1502, Kemal Reis made the Island of Lefkada his new base for operations in the Ionian and Adriatic Seas, where he raided the coastal settlements belonging to the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Ragusa, capturing several of them on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. However, the strategic importance of the Island of Santa Maura (as the Venetians called Lefkada) prompted the Repubblica Serenissima to organize a huge fleet under the command of Benedetto Pesaro, which consisted of 50 galleys and numerous other smaller ships. The Venetians were joined by 13 Papal galleys under the command of Giacomo Pesaro, the brother of Benedetto who was the Bishop of Paphos, as well as 3 galleys belonging to the Knights of St. John in Rhodes and 4 French galleys under the command of the Prégent de Bidoux. Overwhelmed by the size of the enemy fleet, Kemal Reis was forced to abandon Lefkada and sailed back first to Gallipoli and later to Istanbul, where, in October 1502, he ordered the construction of new ships at the Imperial Naval Arsenal of the Golden Horn.

In March 1503 Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with his new ships and reached Gallipoli where he took over the command of the Turkish fleet that was based there. However, he was caught by a severe illness and had to return to Istanbul for treatment, which lasted a long time and caused him to remain inactive between November 1503 and March 1505.

In March 1505, Kemal Reis was appointed with the task of intercepting the Knights of St. John in Rhodes who caused serious damage on Ottoman shipping routes off the coasts of Anatolia, and he set sail from Gallipoli with a force of 3 galleys and 17 fustas, heading first towards the Island of Kos, which he had earlier captured from the Knights, with the aim of organizing an assault on their base in nearby Rhodes. In May 1505, Kemal Reis assaulted the coasts of Rhodes and landed a large number of Turkish troops on the island, where they bombarded the castle of the Knights from land and took control of several settlements. From there Kemal Reis sailed to the islands of Tilos and Nisyros where he bombarded the fortresses of the Knights from the sea. Still in May 1505 Kemal Reis captured the Island of Lemnos and assaulted the Island of Chios, before returning back to Modon in July 1505.

In September 1505, Kemal Reis assaulted Sicily and captured 3 ships (one from the Republic of Ragusa, the other two from Sicily) off the Sicilian coast.

In January 1506, he made the Island of Djerba his new base and sailed to Spain, where he once again landed at the coasts of Andalucia and bombarded the ports of Almeria and Malaga. He also transported the final remnants of the surviving Muslims and Jews who had to suffer inhuman treatments since the Spanish Inquisition of 1492 and brought them to Istanbul.

In May 1506 Kemal Reis, commanding a force of 8 galliots and fustas, returned to the Aegean Sea, and in June 1506 landed at the Island of Leros with a force of 500 janissaries. There he assaulted the Venetian castle under the command of Paolo Simeoni. Throughout June 1506, he raided the Dodecanese Islands before sailing back to the West Mediterranean with a fleet of 22 ships (including 3 large galleys and 11 fustas) where he landed on Sicily and assaulted the coastal settlements. There he was confronted by the forces of the Viceroy of Sicily who was an ally of Spain. In September 1506 Kemal Reis confronted a Spanish fleet defending Djerba and captured a Spanish galley during combat. In October 1506, he landed at Trapani in Sicily and burned the Genoese ships at the port, whose crewmen were, however, released because they had no experience of naval warfare and were not deemed useful. He later bombarded the Venetian galley under the command of Benedetto Priuli. He responded to the cannon fire from the fortress of Trapani with the cannons on his ships. He later sailed to the Island of Cerigo in the Ionian Sea with a force of 3 galleys and 2 fustas, and exchanged fire with the Venetian fleet under the command of Girolamo Contarini. He later sailed back to Istanbul.

In January 1507, Kemal Reis was appointed by Bayezid II with the task of hunting the Knights of St. John and set sail from Gallipoli with a large fleet of 15 galleys and 25 fustas that were heavily armed with cannons. He engaged with the Knights in several occasions until August 1507, when he returned to Istanbul. In August 1507, he sailed to Alexandria with a cargo of 8,000 sets of oars and 50 cannons that were donated to the Mameluke sultan by Bayezid II for helping him in his fight against the Portuguese fleet which often ventured into the Red Sea and damaged Mameluke interests. Kemal Reis stayed in Egypt until February 1508, and was back in Istanbul in May 1508, where he personally coordinated the reparation and modification of his ships at the Imperial Naval Arsenal of the Golden Horn before setting sail once again towards the Aegean Sea for confronting the Venetians and the Knights of St. John. In August 1508, he arrived at Euboea with 2 galleys, 3 barques and numerous fustas. From there he sailed to Tenedos where he repulsed an attack of the Knights and sank a ship near the port of Sizia. In November 1508, he captured a Genoese galleass from Savona off the island of Tenedos. In January 1509, commanding a force of 13 ships, he assaulted the Castle of Coo near Rhodes which belonged to the Knights of St. John. In February 1509, accompanied by the famous Turkish privateer Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (known as Curtogoli in the West) and commanding a larger fleet of 20 ships (4 galleys, 1 galleass, 2 galliots, 3 barques and 10 fustas) he assaulted the City of Rhodes and landed a large number of janissaries at the port. In only a few days, 4 large assaults are made on the Castle of Rhodes as well as the walls of the citadel that surrounds the city. Towards mid February, in command of 3 galleys and 3 fustas, he chased the ships belonging to Knights that were escaping Rhodes for the safety of nearby islands, and captured 3 galleons and 9 other types of ships.


Still in 1509 Kemal Reis sailed to the Tyrrhenian Sea and landed at the coasts of Liguria. He continued operating in the West Mediterranean for some time, until returning back to Gallipoli. In September 1510, he set sail from Gallipoli with 2 galleys, 1 galliot and several fustas, and joined the Ottoman fleet of cargo ships in Istanbul which were heading to Alexandria and carried wood for building ships, sets of oars and cannons that were sent to the Mamelukes for their fight against the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean. The cargo fleet that Kemal Reis was to escort amounted to a total of 40 ships, 8 of which were galleys.

In early 1511, after passing the lands of the Duchy of Naxos and being sighted for the last time in December 1510, 27 ships of the Ottoman cargo fleet were wrecked by a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea, including the ship of Kemal Reis, who died with his men.

In honor of Kemal Reis, F-247 TCG Kemal Reis, a Salih Reis (MEKO 200TN II-B) class frigate, was commissioned in the Turkish Navy.  Several other warships of the Turkish Navy have been named after Kemal Reis.


Re'is, Kemal  see Kemal Re’is
Ahmed Kemaleddin see Kemal Re’is
Kemaleddin, Ahmed see Kemal Re’is


Kemal, Yasar
Yasar Kemal, Yasar also spelled Yashar, original name Kemal Sadik Gogceli, (b. 1923, Hemite, Turkey - d. February 28, 2015, Istanbul) was a Turkish novelist of Kurdish descent best known for his stories of village life and for his outspoken advocacy on behalf of the dispossessed. 

At age five, Kemal saw his father murdered in a mosque and was himself blinded in one eye.  He left secondary school after two years and worked at a variety of odd jobs.  In 1950, he was arrested for his political activism, but he was ultimately acquitted.  The following year, Kemal moved to Istanbul and was hired as a reporter for the daily newspaper Cumhuriyet, where he worked in various capacities until 1963.  During this time, he published a novella, Teneke (1955, "The Tin Pan"), and the novel Ince Memed (1955, Memed, My Hawk).  The latter, a popular tale about a bandit and folk hero, was translated into more than twenty (20) languages and was made into a movie in 1984.  Kemal wrote three more novels featuring Memed as the protagonist.  In 1962, he joined the Turkish Labour Party, and in 1967, he founded Ant, a weekly political magazine informed by Marxist ideology.  He was arrested again in 1971, and in 1996 a court sentenced him to a deferred jail term for alleged seditious statements about the Turkish government's oppression of the Kurdish people.

Kemal's other novels include the trilogy Ortadirek (1960, The Wind from the Plain); Yer demir, gok bakir (1963, Iron Earth, Copper Sky), Olmez otu (1968, The Undying Grass), and Tanyeri horozlan (2002, The Cocks of Dawn).  He also published volumes of nonfiction -- including Peri bacalan (1957, The Fairy Chimneys),  collection of reportage, and Baldaki tuz (1974, The Salt in the Honey), a book of political essays -- as well as the children's book Filler sultani ile kirmizi sakalli topal karinca (1977, The Sultan of the Elephants and the Red-Bearded Lame Ant).  In 2007, an operatic adaptation of Kemal's Teneke premiered at La Scala in Milan.

Kerekou, Mathieu
Mathieu Kérékou (September 2, 1933 – October 14, 2015) was a Beninese politician who was President of Benin from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006. After seizing power in a military coup, he ruled the country for 17 years, for most of that time under an officially Marxist-Leninist ideology, before he was stripped of his powers by the National Conference of 1990. He was defeated in the 1991 presidential election, but was returned to the presidency in the 1996 election and controversially re-elected in 2001. 

Kérékou was born in 1933 in Kouarfa. in north-west French Dahomey.  After having studied at military schools in modern-day Mali and Senegal, Kérékou served in the military. Following independence, from 1961 to 1963 he was an aide-de-camp to Dahomeyan President Hubert Maga, following Maurice Kouandete's seizure of power in December 1967, Kérékou, who was his cousin, was made chairman of the Military Revolutionary Council. After Kérékou attended French military schools from 1968 to 1970, Maga made him a major, deputy chief of staff, and commander of the Ouidah paratroop unit.

Kerekou seized power in Dahomey in a military coup on October 26, 1972, ending a system of government in which three members of a presidential council were to rotate power (earlier in the year MagKérékou a had handed over power to Justin Ahomadegbe). 

During his first two years in power, Kérékou expressed only nationalism and said that the country's revolution would not "burden itself by copying foreign ideology ... We do not want communism or capitalism or socialism. We have our own Dahomean social and cultural system." On November 30, 1974, however, he announced the adoption of Marxism-Leninism by the state. The country was renamed from the Republic of Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin a year later; the banks and petroleum industry were nationalized. The People's Revolutionary Party of Benin (Parti de la révolution populaire du Bénin, PRPB) was established as the sole ruling party. In 1980, Kérékou was elected president by the Revolutionary National Assembly; he retired from the army in 1987.

It has been suggested that Kérékou's move to Marxism-Leninism was motivated mainly by pragmatic considerations, and that Kérékou himself was not actually a leftist radical; the new ideology offered a means of legitimization, a way of distinguishing the new regime from those that had preceded it, and was based on broader unifying principles than the politics of ethnicity. Kérékou's regime initially included officers from both the north and south of the country, but as the years passed the northerners (like Kérékou himself) became clearly dominant, undermining the idea that the regime was not based in ethnicity. By officially adopting Marxism-Leninism, Kérékou may also have wanted to win the support of the country's leftists.

Kérékou's regime was rigid and vigorous in pursuing its newly adopted ideological goals from the mid-1970s to the late 1970s. Beginning in the late 1970s, the regime jettisoned much of its radicalism and settled onto a more moderately socialist course as Kérékou consolidated his personal control.

Kérékou survived numerous attempts to oust him, including an invasion of the port city of Cotonou by mercenaries contracted by a group of exiled Beninese political rivals in January 1977, as well as two coup attempts in 1988.



It was hoped that the nationalizations of the 1970s would help develop the economy, but it remained in a very poor condition, with the state sector being plagued by inefficiency and corruption. Kérékou began reversing course in the early 1980s, closing down numerous state-run companies and attempting to attract foreign investment. He also accepted an International Monetary Fund (IMF) structural readjustment program in 1989, agreeing to austerity measures that severely cut state expenditures. The economic situation continued to worsen during the 1980s, provoking widespread unrest in 1989. A student strike began in January of that year. Subsequently, strikes among various elements of society increased in frequency and the nature of their demands grew broader: whereas initially they had focused on economic issues such as salary arrears, this progressed to include demands for political reform.

In the period of reforms towards multi-party democracy in Africa at the beginning of the 1990s, Benin moved onto this path early, with Kérékou being forced to make concessions to popular discontent. Benin's early and relatively smooth transition may be attributed to the particularly dismal economic situation in the country, which seemed to preclude any alternative. In the midst of increasing unrest, Kérékou was re-elected as president by the National Assembly in August 1989, but in December 1989 Marxism-Leninism was dropped as the state ideology, and a national conference was held in February 1990. The conference turned out to be hostile to Kérékou and declared its own sovereignty; despite the objections of some of his officers to this turn of events, Kérékou did not act against the conference, although he did label the conference's declaration of sovereignty a "civilian coup". During the transition that followed, Kérékou remained president but lost most of his power.

During the 1990 National Conference, which was nationally televised, Kérékou spoke to the Archbishop of Cotonou, Isidor de Souza, confessing guilt and begging forgiveness for the flaws of his regime. An observer described it as a "remarkable piece of political theater", full of cultural symbolism and significance. In effect, Kérékou was seeking forgiveness from his people. Such a gesture, so unusual for the African autocrats of the time, could have fatally weakened Kérékou's political standing, but he performed the gesture in such a way that, far from ending his political career, it instead served to symbolically redeem him and facilitate his political rehabilitation, while also "securing him immunity from prosecution". Kérékou shrewdly utilized the timing and setting.  Culturally as well as theologically it would prove impossible to refuse forgiveness on these terms.

World Bank economist Nicephore Soglo, chosen as prime minister by the conference, took office in March, and a new constitution was approved in a December 1990 referendum. Multi-party elections were held in March 1991, which Kérékou lost, obtaining only about 32% of the vote in the second round against Prime Minister Soglo; while he won very large vote percentages in the north, in the rest of the country he found little support. Kérékou was thus the first mainland African president to lose power through a popular election. He apologized for "deplorable and regrettable incidents" that occurred during his rule.

After losing the election in March 1991, Kérékou left the political scene and "withdrew to total silence", another move that was interpreted as penitential.

Kérékou reclaimed the presidency in the March 1996 election. Soglo's economic reforms and his alleged dictatorial tendencies had caused his popularity to suffer. Although Kérékou received fewer votes than Soglo in the first round, he then defeated Soglo in the second round, taking 52.5% of the vote. Kérékou was backed in the second round by third place candidate Adrien Houngbedji and fourth place candidate Bruno Amoussou, as in 1991, Kérékou received very strong support from northern voters, but he also improved his performance in the south. Soglo alleged fraud, but this was rejected by the Constitutional Court, which confirmed Kérékou's victory. When taking the oath of office, Kérékou left out a portion that referred to the "spirits of the ancestors" because he had become a born-again Christian after his defeat by Soglo. He was subsequently forced to retake the oath including the reference to spirits.

Kérékou was re-elected for a second five-year term in the March 2001 presidential election under controversial circumstances. In the first round he took 45.4% of the vote; Soglo, who took second place, and parliament speaker Houngbédji, who took third, both refused to participate in the second round, alleging fraud and saying that they did not want to legitimize the vote by participating in it. This left the fourth place finisher, Amoussou, to face Kérékou in the run-off, and Kérékou easily won with 83.6% of the vote. It was subsequently discovered that the American corporation Titan gave more than two million dollars to Kérékou's re-election campaign as a bribe.

During Kérékou's second period in office his government followed a liberal economic path. The period also saw Benin take part in international peacekeeping missions in other African states.

Kérékou was barred from running again in 2006 on two counts. The constitution not only limited the president to two terms, but also required that presidential candidates be younger than 70 (he turned 70 in 2003, through his second term). Kérékou said in July 2005 that he would not attempt to amend the constitution to allow him to run for a third term. "If you don't leave power," he said, "power will leave you." There was, however, speculation that he had wanted it to be changed, but faced too much opposition.

On March 5, 2006, voters went to the polls to decide who would succeed Kérékou as President of Benin. Yayi Boni defeated Adrien Houngbédji in a run-off vote on March 19, and Kérékou left office at the end of his term, at midnight on April 6, 2006.

Kérékou allegedly converted to Islam in 1980 while on a visit to Libya, and changed his first name to Ahmed, but he later returned to the use of the name Mathieu. This alleged conversion may have been designed to please the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, in order to obtain financial and military support. Alternatively, the conversion story may have been a rumor planted by some of his opponents in order to destabilize his regime. In any event, Kerekou subsequently became a born-again Christian. Some Vodun believers in Benin regarded him as having magical powers, explaining his ability to survive repeated coup attempts during his military rule.

Nicknamed "the chameleon" from an early point in his career, Kérékou's motto was "the branch will not break in the arms of the chameleon". The nickname and motto he adopted were full of cultural symbolism, articulating and projecting his power and ability. Unlike some past rulers who had adopted animal symbolism intending to project a violent, warlike sense of power, Kérékou's symbolic animal suggested skill and cleverness; his motto suggested that he would keep the branch from breaking, but implicitly warned of what could happen to "the branch" if it was not "in the arms of the chameleon"—political chaos. To some, his nickname seemed particularly apt as he successfully adapted himself to a new political climate and neo-liberal economic policies in the 1990s.

Kerekou used the campaign slogan, "Experience in the service of youth."

After leaving office in 2006, Kérékou stayed out of politics and spent time at his homes in Cotonou and Natitingou in northwestern Benin, his native region. He suffered a health crisis in 2014 and was taken to Paris for treatment. Although he recovered, he continued to suffer health problems, and he died in Benin on October 14, 2015 at the age of 82. 


Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, Abu ‘Abd Allah
Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, Abu ‘Abd Allah (Abu ‘Abd Allah Khabbab ibn al-Aratt) (d. 657).  Companion of the Prophet.  He is usually mentioned as the sixth or seventh man who embraced Islam.

Khabbab ibn al-Aratt was a boy from Najd, from the tribe of Banu Tamim. He was among the first ten persons to convert to Islam and was a sahabi (companion of Muhammad).

Before Muhammad started his mission and Khabbab was "obviously not yet in his teens", one of the Arab tribes raided their territory and took their cattle and captured women and children. Khabbab was among the youths captured. He was passed from one hand to another until he ended up in Makkah (Mecca), in the slave market of that city.

A woman named Umm Anmaar who belonged to the Banu Khuza'a clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca went there. She wanted to buy herself a youth for her domestic chores and to exploit his labor for economic gains.

As she scrutinized the faces of those who were displayed for sale, her eyes fell on Khabbab. She saw that he was strong and healthy and that there were clear signs of intelligence on his face. She needed no further incentive to purchase him. She paid and walked away with her new slave.

On the way home, Umm Anmaar and Khabbab had a conversation where Khabbab explained his background.

Umm Anmaar placed the young Khabbab as an apprentice to one of the blacksmiths in Makkah (Mecca) to learn the art of making swords. Khabbab learned quickly and was soon an expert at the craft. When he was strong enough, Umm Anmaar set up a workshop for him with all the necessary tools and equipment for making swords. Soon he was quite famous in Makkah for his excellent craftsmanship. People also liked dealing with him because of his honesty and integrity. Umm Anmaar gained much profit through him and exploited his talents to the full.

In spite of his youthfulness, Khabbab displayed unique intelligence and wisdom. Often, when he had finished work and was left to himself, he would reflect deeply on the state of Arabian society which was so steeped in corruption. He was appalled at the aimless wandering, the ignorance and the tyranny which he saw, and he longed for a brighter future.

Soon Muhammad announced Islam, saying that none deserves to be worshipped or adored except the Creator and Sustainer of the universe. Muhammad called for an end to injustice and oppression and sharply criticized the practices of the rich in accumulating wealth at the expense of the poor and the outcast. Muhammad denounced aristocratic privileges and attitudes and called for a new order based on respect for human dignity and compassion for the underprivileged including orphans, wayfarers and the needy.

To Khabbab, this was like a powerful light dispelling the darkness of ignorance. He went and listened to these teachings directly from Muhammad. Without any hesitation he stretched out his hand to Muhammad in allegiance and testified that "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His servant and His messenger."

Khabbab did not hide his acceptance of Islam from anyone and when the news of his becoming a Muslim reached Umm Anmaar, she became incensed with anger. She went to her brother Siba'a ibn Abd al-Uzza who gathered a gang of youths from the Banu Khuza'a and together they made their way to Khabbab. They found him completely engrossed in his work. Siba'a went up to him and said:

    "We have heard some news from you which we don't believe."

    "What is it?" asked Khabbab.

    "We have been told that you have given up your religion and that you now follow that man from the Banu Hashim ."

    "I have not given up my religion," replied Khabbab calmly. "I only believe in One God Who has no partner. I reject your idols and I believe that Muhammad is the servant of God and His messenger."

As soon as he spoke these words did Siba'a and his gang set upon him. They beat him with their fists and with iron bars and they kicked him until he fell unconscious to the ground, with blood streaming from the wounds he received.

The news of what happened between Khabbab and his slave mistress spread throughout Makkah instantly, astonishing people about Khabbab's daring. They had not yet heard of anyone who followed Muhammad and who had had the audacity to announce the fact with such frankness and defiant confidence.

This affair shook the leaders of Quraish. They did not expect that a blacksmith, such as the one who belonged to Umm Anmaar and who had no clan in Makkah to protect and prevent him from injury, would be bold enough to go outside her authority, denounce her gods and reject the religion of her forefathers. They feared this would set a precedent, and they were right. Khabbab's courage impressed many of his friends and encouraged them to announce their acceptance of Islam. One after another, they began to proclaim publicly their Islam.

In the precincts of the Haram, near the Ka'bah, the Quraish leaders gathered to discuss the problem of Muhammad. Among them were Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Walid ibn al-Mughira and Abu Jahl.

They noted that Muhammad was getting stronger and that his following where increasing very fast. To them this was like a terrible disease and they made up their minds to stop it before it got out of control. They decided that each tribe should get hold of any follower of Muhammad among them and punish him until he either recanted his faith or died.

Umm Anmaar brother, Siba'a ibn Abd al-Uzza and his people where given the task of further punishing Khabbab. Regularly they began taking him to an open area in the city when the sun was in zenith and the ground was scorching hot. They would take off his clothes and dress him in iron armor and lay him on the ground. In the intense heat his skin would be seared and his body would become inert.

When it appeared that all strength had left him, they would come up and challenge him:

    "What do you say about Muhammad?"

    "He is the servant of God and His messenger. He has come with the religion of guidance and truth, to lead us from darkness into light."

    They became more furious and intensified their beating. They would ask about al-Lat and al-Uzza and he would reply firmly:

"Two idols, deaf and dumb, that cannot cause harm or bring any benefit..."

Further enraged, they would take a big hot stone and place it on his back. Khabbab's pain and anguish would be excruciating but he did not recant.

He was also forced by the Quraish to lie on live cinders.

The inhumanity of Umm Anmaar towards Khabbab was not less than that of her brother.

Once

when Khabbab was at his workshop, Umm Anmaar saw Muhammad speaking to Khabbab. She flew into a blind rage and every day after that, for several days, she went to Khabbab's workshop and punished him by placing a red hot iron from the furnace on his head. The agony was unbearable and he often fainted.

Khabbab was eventually bought from Umm Anmaar by Abu Bakr and given his freedom.

Khabbab often came to recite the Qur'an to Fatimah bint al-Khattab (the sister of Umar ibn al-Khattab) and her husband.

One day Khabbab was in Fatimah's house, teaching her and her husband from a written text from the Qur'an, When Umar became enraged and started beating Fatimah and her husband. Khabbab hid away.

Khabbab suffered long and his only recourse was to prayer. He prayed for the punishment of Umm Anmaar and her brother Siba'a ibn Abd al-Uzza. Finally he felt that his pain and suffering where coming to an end when Muhammad gave permission to his companions to emigrate to Medina.

Since Umm Anmaar was afflicted with a terrible illness which no one had heard of before, she could not prevent Khabbab from going. She had headaches and was especially nerve-racking, behaved as if she had suffered a rabid attack.

Her children sought everywhere for medical help until finally they were told that the only cure was to cauterize her head. This was done. The treatment, with a red hot iron, was more terrible than all the headaches she suffered.

In Medina, Khabbah was met with generosity and hospitality among the Ansar and he experienced a state of ease and restfulness for the first time in a long time. He was delighted to be near Muhammad, freed from his tormentors.

Khabbab fought alongside Muhammad at the Battle of Badr. He participated in the Battle of Uhud where he had the satisfaction of seeing Siba'a ibn Abd al-Uzza meet his end at the hands of Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib, the uncle of Muhammad.

Khabbab once visited Umar ibn al-Khattab during his caliphate. Umar stood up and greeted Khabbab with the words:

    "No one is more deserving than you to be in this assembly other than Bilal."

Umar asked Khabbab about the torture and the persecution he had received at the hands of the polytheists. All of that was still very vivid in his mind and Khabbab described. He then exposed his back and even Umar was aghast at what he saw.

Abdullah ibn Mas'ood, one of the major authorities on matters related to the Qur'an, would sometimes seek Khabbab's advice and opinion.

In the last phase of his life, Khabbab was blessed with wealth such as he had never before dreamed of. He was well-known for his generosity.

When he received a reasonable pension from the Khalifah (Caliph), he placed the money in a part of his house that was known to the poor and the needy and did not secure it in any way. Those in need would come and take what they needed without seeking any permission or asking any questions. He did so since he felt great fear for God and accountability to God for what he did with his wealth.

Khabbab ibn al-Aratt died in Ali ibn Abu Talib's Khilafat (Caliphate) and soon after Ali stood at his grave and said:

    "May God have mercy on Khabbab. He accepted Islam wholeheartedly. He performed Hijra willingly. He lived as a Mujahid and God shall not withhold the reward of one who has done good."

Abu 'Abd Allah Khabbab ibn al-Aratt see Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, Abu ‘Abd Allah


Khadija
Khadija (Khadījah bint Khuwaylid) (Khadījah al-Kubra) (c.555 – 619).  First wife of the Prophet Muhammad.  She was a wealthy widow when she met Muhammad whom she took into her service and later married.  

Khadija was born in Mecca, the daughter of Khuwalid bin Asad bin Abdul Uzza bin Qusayy and Fatimah bint Za'idah, of the Quraysh tribe and Banu Hashim clan. Her father was a wealthy merchant.  

Around 570, she married for the first time, to a man of the Makhzumi clan.  His name is not known with certainty.    It is unknown when Khadija married for a second time, but it is clear that one of the husbands died, while the other one divorced her.

Around 585, Khadija’s father died.   Around 595, Khadija asked Muhammad, a man fifteen years her junior, to marry her.  Muhammad consented.

In 610, Muhammad received his first revelation, and it is believed that Khadija converted to Islam soon afterwards.  

In 619, Khadija died a natural death in Mecca.

Khadija was older than Muhammad.  Before her marriage to the Prophet, she had been married twice, and had engaged in trade.  Khadija was a wealthy woman, either from inheritance or from her first two marriages, or from all sources.  She also controlled a trade system in Arabia which reached as far north as Mesopotamia, and which probably helped to spread Islam in its nascent period.  

After Muhammad had executed satisfactorily his commission as steward of her merchandise in Bosra (Syria), she offered him marriage.

Although she was an older woman, Khadija, nevertheless, bore Muhammad three (some sources say two) sons and four daughters: Ruqayya, Zaynab, ‘Umm Kulthum, and Fatima.  All of Muhammad’s sons died in infancy.  (Some sources claim that Ruqayya, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum were children of Khadija’s second husband, while other historians insist that they were the children of Muhammad.

Muhammad’s marriage to Khadija provided him with material and spiritual comfort.  As for Khadija, herself, she is honored in Islam as being the first believer and the first convert to Islam.  Traditionally, Khadija is credited with being Muhammad’s greatest supporter in the troubled early years of his mission.  Khadija’s death (c. 619 C.C.), just three years before the hijra, is seen by most of Muhammad’s biographers as a major blow.  As a result of her death during the infancy of Islam, there are no hadith from her describing her years with Muhammad.  Nevertheless, she is credited with supporting and encouraging Muhammad, fostering his confidence in himself and his mission.


Khadijah bint Khuwaylid see Khadija
Khadijah al-Kubra see Khadija


Khadim al-Haramayn
Khadim al-Haramayn (“Servant of the Two Holy Places” or "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" -- Mecca and Medina).  Title used by a number of Muslim monarchs.  After the Ottoman Sultan Selim I had conquered Egypt in 1517, the title was said to have been passed to him by al-Mutawakkil III, the last ‘Abbasid caliph in Cairo.  However, the ‘Abbasids, whether in Baghdad or in Cairo, had never used it.  The first to adopt it appears to have been Saladin, and several Mameluke sultans used it after him, but it does not seem to have formed part of their standard titulary.

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (khādim al-ḥaramain al-šarīfain), a historical term, was a pious title taken by the Ayyubids, the Mameluke Sultans of Egypt, and the Ottoman Sultans, and which has been revived by modern Saudi kings.

It is most known today as the title taken by the King of Saudi Arabia in his role as protector of the two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina, which had traditionally been the role of the Caliph.

The first Saudi king to assume the title was Fahd bin Abdul Aziz in 1986. King Fahd replaced the term "His Majesty" with "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" because it was said that God alone is All-Majestic.



Servant of the Two Holy Places see Khadim al-Haramayn
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques see Khadim al-Haramayn
khadim al-haramain al-sarifain see Khadim al-Haramayn


Khadim Suleyman Pasha
Khadim Suleyman Pasha (d. 1547).  Ottoman governor of Egypt and an Ottoman Grand Vizier.  In 1538, he was the commander of the campaign against the Portuguese in India, called for by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat (r. 1526-1537).  On the way, he took the port of Aden.
Khadim Suleyman see Khadim Suleyman Pasha
Suleyman, Khadim see Khadim Suleyman Pasha


Khadir, al-
Khadir, al- (al-Khidr) (Khidar) (Khizr) (Khizar).  Name of a popular figure who plays a prominent part in legend and story.  The majority of the Qur’an commentators identify him with the servant of God mentioned in Qur’an, Sura 18.

Khidr or al-Khiḍr, "the Green One", is an enigmatic figure in Islam. Some say he is a ‘Abdan Ṣālih (righteous servant of God) while others say he is a prophet. Al-Khiḍr is best known for his appearance in the Qur'an in sura al-Kahf [Qur'an 18:65]. Although not mentioned by name in the āyah (verse), al-Khiḍr is assumed to be the figure that Musa (Moses) accompanies and whose seemingly violent and destructive actions so disturb Moses that he violates his oath not to ask questions.

Islamic tradition sometimes describes al-Khiḍr as Mu'allim al-anbiya (Tutor of the Prophets), for the spiritual guidance he has shown every prophet who has appeared throughout history. The one prophet whom al-Khiḍr did not teach is Muhammad; significantly, it is Muhammad who taught al-Khiḍr. This is an unsurprising reversal of the master-disciple relationship exemplified by al-Khiḍr and Moses. Having the young, unlettered Muhammad teach the wise, ancient al-Khiḍr underscores the superiority of Muhammad's prophethood and the fact that he too is a repository of divine knowledge (ilm ladunni).

Hızır (al-Khidr) is also an important figure in Alevism as well as the subject of a major Turkish holiday, Hindrellez. In the Jordanian city of Mahis there is a Mausoleum to al-Khiḍr.


Khidr, al- see Khadir, al-
The Green One see Khadir, al-
Khidar see Khadir, al-
Khizr see Khadir, al-
Khizar see Khadir, al-
Hizir see Khadir, al-


Khadir, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-
Khadir, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al- (Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Khadir) (1876-1958).  Scholar, poet and writer of Tunisian origin.  Between 1952-54, he was rector of the al-Azhar in Cairo.
Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Khadir see Khadir, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-


Khafi Khan, Muhammad Hashim Ali
Khafi Khan, Muhammad Hashim Ali.  Author of an important general history of India written in Persian, the Muntakhab ul-Lubab, which he began during the latter years of Aurangzeb’s reign (1658-1707), but did not publish until 1732.  Khafi Khan belonged to a well-known family of Delhi.  His father, Khwaja, Mir, served Murad Bakhsh, the youngest son of Shah Jahan.  Khafi Khan himself held important offices under Aurangzeb, Farrukh Siyar, and other Mughal rulers.  His account starts with Babar’s conquest of India and ends with events in the year 1731.  For the earlier period, he draws on Sadiq Khan’s Shahjahan namah, but from Aurangzeb onward he provides an excellent account full of original information.  Although his Shi‘ite prejudices against the Turanis have been criticized, his description of the inner conflicts within the nobility and the details of military campaigns and administrative measures are very useful.
Muhammad Hashim Ali Khafi Khan see Khafi Khan, Muhammad Hashim Ali.


Khaksars
Khaksars.  Members of the Khaksar movement.  The Khaksar movement was founded in 1930 (or 1932) by Allama Mashriqi (Inayatullah Khan Mashraqi) (1888-1963), a Cambridge University wrangler (an honor recipient in mathematics) and an educator.  Khaksar literally means “humble,” and great emphasis was placed on social service and military discipline.  Starting as a secular party, it soon became highly islamicized.  Members always wore khaki uniforms and carried, particularly during parade, a belcha (spade).  In 1936, it was declared that the members were “to acquire strength, and to be ever ready to sacrifice property and life and even children and wife for God and Islam.” In 1939, during Shi‘ite and Sunni discord they came in conflict with the government of Uttar Pradesh and in 1940 violently clashed with the Punjab government.  Casualties occurred, the organization was banned, and its leader was imprisoned.  After that, although it still existed in splinter groups, it became politically ineffective.  Its main appeal was to the vague romantic idealism of Indian Muslims at that time.

The Khaksar Tehrik was a social movement based in Lahore, British India, established by Allama Mashriqi in 1930 to free India from foreign rule, to uplift the masses, and to revive the Muslims, who had previously ruled parts of India at different times during a period spanning nearly a thousand years. Although Mashriqi firmly believed that the right to rule India belonged to the Muslims, at the same time, he wanted to create an environment of fairness, justice, and equal rights for non-Muslims as well. For this reason, non-Muslims were allowed to join the Tahrik keeping it free from prejudice against any person, regardless of his/her caste, color, creed. The word "Khaksar" is derived from the Persian language, Khak means dust, and Sar means life, roughly translated as "a humble person."

The Khaksar Tehrik worked under a charter that everyone was required to follow, with no exceptions. The charter was created to ensure all were treated fairly; even Allama Mashriqi, founder and leader of the Tehrik, was held accountable for his actions. The Tehrik was also kept free of any membership fee. All Khaksars were required to bear their own expenses and donate their time. The purpose was to develop the spirit of self-reliance and encourage the Khaksars to spend their own money and time for the national cause.


Humble Ones see Khaksars.


Khalafallah, Muhammad Ahmad
Khalafallah, Muhammad Ahmad (Muhammad Ahmad Khalafallah) (Muhammad Ahmad Khalaf Allah) (1916-1997).  Islamic modernist thinker.  Born in Sharqiyah Province in Lower Egypt, he attended traditional Islamic schools, a government school, and then Dar al-‘Ulum, followed by the Faculty of Arts at the Egyptian (later Cairo) University, from which he graduated in 1939.  He completed his M. A. in 1942 with a thesis on “Al-jadal fi al-Qur’an” (Polemic in the Qur’an), later published as Muhammad wa-al-quwa al-mudaddah (Muhammad and the Forces of Opposition), and then joined the university faculty as a tutor.  In 1947, he presented a doctoral dissertation on the Qur’an to the Faculty of Arts which stirred up considerable controversy and was not sustained, so he resigned from his university position in 1948.  This dissertation was published after revision in 1951 under the title Al-fann al-qisasi fi al-Qur’an al-karim (The Art of Narrative in the Qur’an) and has been reprinted several times since.  He gained his doctorate in 1954 with a thesis on Abu al-Faraj al-Isbahani.  He worked for many years in the Ministry of Culture, becoming undersecretary for planning in this ministry.  After retirement he was active in the Egyptian Committee for Asian-African solidarity and was vice president of the National Progressive Unionist (Tajammu‘) party.  He was chief editor of the magazine Al-yaqzah al-‘Arabiyah (Arab Awakening); wrote many articles on the Qur’an and Islam for popular periodicals, such as Ruz al-yusuf; and wrote a large number of books, including works on modern reformers such as ‘Abd Allah Nadim and ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi along with works on Islamic topics, such as Al-Qur’an wa-mushkilat hayatina al-mu‘asirah (The Qur’an and Our Contemporary Problems), Al-Qur’an wa-al-dawlah (The Qur’an and State), and Al-Islam wa-al-‘urubah (Islam and Arabism).

Khalafallah’s doctoral dissertation on Qur’anic narrative caused controversy, because he argued that the Qur’anic narratives concerning previous prophets and other past events do not aim at providing precise historical information but are literary and artistic stories designed to sway the hearts of their hearers.  Hence, one is free to reject the accounts as strict history, if led to do so on rational grounds.  Although the work was published, it has been the subject of rebuttals.  Khalafallah’s experience, reminiscent of that of Taha Husayn (1889-1971) earlier, shows the limits of tolerance on this sensitive issue.  

In his writings on political and social matters, Khalafallah calls for a very broad interpretation of the Qur’an and argues that Arab socialism is consistent with Islam.   Fixed prohibitions and commands can be established only by very clear text of the Qur’an, and in social matters maslahah (the welfare of Muslims) generally takes precedence over nass (text).  Khalafallah was prominent among those opposed to the kind of link between religion and state demanded by the Muslim Brotherhood.  In his writings he sought to show a continuity between his thinking and that of earlier modernists, such as Muhammad ‘Abduh, as well as more classical writers.




Muhammad Ahmad Khalafallah see Khalafallah, Muhammad Ahmad
Allah, Muhammad Ahmad Khalaf see Khalafallah, Muhammad Ahmad
Muhammad Ahmad Khalaf Allah see Khalafallah, Muhammad Ahmad


Khalaf ibn Hayyan al-Ahmar, Abu Muhriz
Khalaf ibn Hayyan al-Ahmar, Abu Muhriz (Abu Muhriz Khalaf ibn Hayyan al-Ahmar) (c.733-796).  Transmitter of ancient Arabic poetry.  He had a prodigious memory and knew Bedouin life intimately.
Abu Muhriz Khalaf ibn Hayyan al-Ahmar see Khalaf ibn Hayyan al-Ahmar, Abu Muhriz


Khalafiyya, al-
Khalafiyya, al-.  Sub-set group of the Ibadiyya, founded in what is now Tripolitania around the beginning of the ninth century by Khalaf ibn al-Samh, a grandson of the Ibadi Imam Abu’l-Khattab al-Yamani.

The Khalafiyya Shia (named for its founder Khalaf ibn Abd al-Samad) were a subsect of the Zaidi branch of Shia Islam.

The Khalafiyya Shia had the following beliefs:

    * They believed that the Imams after Zayd ibn Ali ibn Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abī Ṭālib are as follows (in chronological order):

    * *Abd al-Samad (a client of Zayd ibn Ali, although the Khalafiyya Shia claim he was a son of Zayd), then

    * *Khalaf ibn Abd al-Samad (who fled from the Ummayads to the land of the Turks), then

    * *Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Abd al-Samad, then

    * *Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Abd al-Samad, then

    * *The Khalafiyya Shia did not know the names of the Imams after Ahmad, but they believed that a descendent of Ahmad, still residing in the land of the Turks (since the migration to that land of his ancestor Khalaf ibn Abd al-Samad), would rise as the Mahdi.

    * They believed the Imam’s knowledge comes to him by inspiration, not by acquisition.

    * They believed the Imam understood all languages.

    * They believed that Khalaf ibn Abd al-Samad left behind a book which he composed in letters of an alphabet unknown to anyone other than his successor Imams and that these Imams alone would be able to explain his book.

    * They believed in a doctrine of Tawhid (Oneness of God) which denies that a person can describe or characterize God in any way. For example:

    * *a person cannot say that God is knowing, or that God is not knowing.

    * *a person cannot say that God is powerful, or that God is not powerful.

    * *a person cannot say that God is a thing, or that God is not a thing.

    * They also believed in a devotion to fives. For example (according to them):

    * *5 primary angels; Mikha’il (the chief angel of the Khalafiyya), Jibra’il, Izra’il, Mika’il and Israfil

    * *5 chosen creatures on Earth; Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali

    * *5 fingers

    * *5 pillars of Islam; Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Sawm and Hajj

    * *5 senses; hearing, sight, touch, smell, and taste

    * *5 prayer times; Fajr (Dawn prayer), Dhuhr (Mid-day prayer), Asr (Afternoon prayer), Maghrib (Sunset prayer) and Isha'a (Night prayer)

    * *5 books of scripture; the Suhuf Ibrahim (commonly the Scrolls of Abraham), the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (commonly the Psalms), the Injil (commonly the Gospel), and the Qur'an

    * *5 things leading to salvation

    * *5 special months of the year; Muharram, Rajab, Ramadan, Dhu al-Qi'dah and Dhu al-Hijjah


Khalduniyya, al-
Khalduniyya, al-.  Cultural association established in Tunis under the spiritual aegis of Ibn Khaldun which was sanctioned in 1896.  Its premises were opened in 1897.

Khaled
Khaled (Khaled Hadj Brahim) (Cheb Khaled) (b. February 29, 1960).  Algerian musician and singer who was the leading musician and developer of the music form known as rai and who many came to call the "King of Rai.".  Khaled has been central in both the development of the cheb-singer movement (from Arabic shabby (young)) as well as to the adding of elements to the more traditional rai music style.  

Khaled was born on February 29, 1960, in Oran.  He started early with music, and learned to play guitar, bass, accordion, and the harmonica as a child.  His first recording, La route de lycee, at only 14, brought him much attention around Algeria.  He then took the title "cheb" (Arabic for "Young man" Khaled).

Cheb Khaled soon started to experiment with a mixture of the traditional rai and Western sounds and instruments.  Especially effective was Khaled’s use of synthesizers and electric

guitars.   His music was censored by the government of Algeria until 1983.  Later, it was the militant Islamists who disapproved of the rai performed by Cheb Khaled and other musicians.  As a consequence, Cheb Khaled felt that his life could be in danger.  

In 1990, Cheb Khaled moved to France, from where he was able to launch his international career.  His music continued to develop, and elements like jazz and hip hop were added.  In 1992, Cheb Khaled had his great international breakthrough with the single Didi, and the album Khaled.  At this point, he removed “Cheb” from his artist name   

Later albums of Khaled were less successful than Khaled, both artistically and commercially.  However, he had his greatest hit in 1996 with Aicha.


At the age of fourteen Khaled formed his first band, Les Cinq Étoiles ("The Five Stars"), and began playing at wedding parties and local cabarets. He recorded his first solo single, "Trigue Lycée" ("Road to High School"), at the same age and soon became involved with the early 1980s changes in the Raï sound, incorporating western instruments and studio techniques.

Algerian Islamic fundamentalists were violently opposed to raï because of its sometimes irreverent tone and the fact that raï singers freely addressed issues considered taboo in Islam, like sex, drugs, and alcohol.

Singers like Khaled articulated socially progressive, more modern themes that many younger people identified with, a way of rebelling against the constraints of the older generations and more traditional Islam. This open embracing of taboo subjects in Islamic culture can be witnessed in the video of Khaled's hit song, "Didi", showing women provocatively dressed and dancing, both taboos in Islamic culture.

Due the nature of the lyrics, fundamentalists were infuriated when the Algerian government, in the wake of a hugely popular 1985 raï festival in Oran, officially declared it to be one of the country's native music styles. In response, fundamentalists sent death threats to some raï artists. The danger forced Khaled to move to Paris in 1986.

In 1991, Khaled was managed by Marc Céda and Djilali Ourak. They asked Jess-Jemel Dif, a drummer with the already popular band led by Rachid Taha and called Carte de Séjour to find them a good record label to sign Khaled. Cheb Khaled was introduced to Universal Music with the song "Didi", which was an old Algerian song. Thus began the international success of Khaled. Sadly, in 1994 the fundamentalist threats materialized when another raï artist, Cheb Hasni, was murdered.

In 1992, after dropping "Cheb" from his name, Khaled released his self titled album Khaled, which established his reputation as a superstar in France and among maghrebian emigrants around the world. Khaled sold over a million copies in Europe alone, an estimated 7 million worldwide, and Khaled scored an even bigger hit with his love song Aicha in 1996. His audience continued to expand throughout the 1990s, and he collaborated with several hip hop artists. Khaled achieved superstar status in France, his homeland Algeria and the Arab world. His signature song, Didi, became extremely popular in the Arabic-speaking countries and also in several other countries, including India and Pakistan. The song was also used in a Bollywood film titled Shreeman Aashiq. Khaled and Don Was appeared on the "The Tonight Show" on February 4, 1993. However, his popularity in the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries was limited to a small but devoted cult following.

In the 1997 film, The Fifth Element, his song Alech Taadi was used in the car chase with Bruce Willis and Milla Jovovich. His next album N'ssi N'ssi further strengthened his position. Film-maker Bertrand Blier used it as the soundtrack for his film "Un, deux, trois… Soleil".and sold 2 million copies. Three years would pass before the release of his next album "Sahra". During this time, Khaled received the 1994 Cesar Award for the best film soundtrack, the 'Victoire de la Musique' for the 1995 artist of the year, and co-organised a huge night at the Zenith (the Paris concert hall) for peace and freedom of expression in Algeria .

In 1999, Khaled was joined by Rachid Taha and Faudel in a concert at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy for a concert known as 1,2,3 Soleils which was subsequently released as a live album and sold more than 5 million copies worldwide.  Khaled became very popular in France, Canada, Belgium, Holland, Japan, England, the Middle East, India, Germany, Spain, Italy, Pakistan and Brazil.

On 12 July 2008, Khaled appeared at the Liverpool Philharmonic Hall to take part in the Liverpool Arabic Arts Festival, part of the "Liverpool: European Capital of Culture 2008" program. Khaled sold over 46 million albums worldwide. His legacy includes 10 diamond, platinum, and gold albums, as well as the highest-selling Arab album in history.

In the summer 2009, Khaled played at the Jazz festival of Montreal.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. FAO was founded on October 16, 1945 in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The FAO Goodwill Ambassadors Program was initiated in 1999. On October 16, 2003, Khaled was nominated to be a Goodwill Ambassador of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

The discography, filmography, biography, and awards of Khaled include the following:

Studio albums

    * 1985 Hada Raykoum
    * 1988 Fuir, Mais Où?
    * 1988 Kutché - with Safy Boutella
    * 1992 Khaled
    * 1993 N'ssi N'ssi
    * 1996 Sahra
    * 1999 Kenza
    * 2004 Ya-Rayi
    * 2007 Best Of Khaled
    * 2009 Liberté

Live albums

    * 1998 Hafla
    * 1999 1, 2, 3 Soleils - with Rachid Taha and Faudel

Collections

    * 1991 Le Meilleur de Cheb Khaled
    * 1992 Le Meilleur de Cheb Khaled 2
    * 2005 Forever King
    * 2005 Spirit of Rai
    * 2005 Les Annees Rai
    * 2006 Salou Ala Nabi
    * 2006 Maghreb Soul - Cheb Khaled Story 1986-1990
    * 2006 Anajit Anajit
    * 2007 Best of
    * 2009 Khaled: Rebel of Raï - The Early Years

Singles

From Kutché (1988):

    * "Chebba & Baroud" (1988)

From Khaled (1992):

    * "Didi" (1992)
    * "Ne m'en voulez pas" (1992)
    * "Di Di" (1997)

From N'ssi N'ssi (1993):

    * "Serbi Serbi" (1993)
    * "Chebba" (1993)
    * "N'ssi N'ssi" (1994)
    * "Bakhta" (1995)

From Sahra (1996):

    * "Aïcha" (1996)
    * "Le jour viendra" (1997)
    * "Ouelli El Darek" (1997)
    * "Lillah" (1997)

From Kenza (1999):

    * "C'est la nuit" (1999)
    * "El Harba Wine" (2000)

From Ya-Rayi (2004):

    * "Ya-Rayi" (2004)
    * "Zine Zina" (2004)

Not released in an album:

    * La terre a tremblé (2003)

From Indigènes (Days of Glory) - Movie (2006):

    * "Ya Dzayer" (2006)
    * "El Babour" (2006)

Featured in

    * 1990 Springtime For The World, The Blow Monkeys
          o Be Not Afraid
    * 1992 Sahara Blue, Hector Zazou
          o Amdyaz
    * 1995 Concert Pour La Tolerance, Jean Michel Jarre
          o Revolution, Revolutions
          o ElDorado (UNESCO official anthem)
    * 1995 Duos Taratata, Various Artists
          o Didi with Johnny Clegg
    * 1995 Going Global Series Voila, Various Artists
          o Kebou
          o N'ssi N'ssi
          o Chebba
    * 1995 Melon: Remixes for Propaganda, U2
          o Numb (Gimme Some More Dignity mix)
    * 1997 Live à Bercy, Mylène Farmer
          o La poupée qui fait non
    * 1997 Emilie Jolie, Various Artists
          o Chanson du herisson
    * 1997 Sol En Si (Solidarité Enfants Sida), Various Artists
          o Mâardi
    * 1998 1 Douar, Alan Stivell
          o Ensemble (Understand)
          o Crimes
    * 1998 Konfusion, Ketama
          o Oasis de los Dioses
    * 1999 L'palais de justice, Freeman
          o Bladi
    * 1999 Ida y Vuelta, Tekameli
          o ¡ Oh Madre !
    * 1999 Amarain, Amr Diab
          o Albey
    * 2000 Balavoine Hommages ..., Various Artists
          o L'aziza
    * 2000 Rapsody, Various Artists
          o Time for a Change
    * 2000 XXème siècle, Les Enfoirés
          o Emmenez-moi
    * 2000 Labyrinthe, Kertra
          o Le rêve de mon père
    * 2001 Big Men, Raï Meets Raggae, Various Artists
          o Aich Rebel Sun
    * 2002 City of Ideas (Ciudad de los Ideas), Vincente Amigo
          o Eyes of the Alhamra (Ojos de la Alhambra)
    * 2002 Duets, Compay Segundo
          o Saludo A Chango
    * 2004 Agir Réagir - Gad Elmaleh (Parrain), Elie Chouraqui, Amina, Youssou N'Dour, Alabina, Jean-Jacques Goldman, Sapho, Princess Erika, Sonia Lahcen, Samira Said, Lââm, Daniel Lévi, Jérôme Collet, Faudel, Idrissa Diop, Moïse N'Tumba (ex-chanteur de Tribal Jam), Christophe Heraut, Yves Lecoq et Cécile de France
    * Agir Réagir
    * 2004 Raï'N'B Fever, Kore & Skalp
          o Retour aux sources
    * 2004 L'enfant du pays, Rim'K
          o L'enfant du pays
    * 2004 Save the World, Enzo Avitabile & Bottari
          o Dance with me
    * 2005 Borderless, Cameron Cartio
          o Henna
    * 2006 Diana 2006, Diana Haddad
          o Mas and Louly
    * 2006 À l'affiche (Best of), Les Négresses Vertes
          o Face à la mer (recorded in 1992)
    * 2006 Morente sueña la Alhambra DVD, Enrique Morente
          o El Marsem
    * 2007 Taxi 4, Melissa Lesite
          o Benthi
    * 2007 Plein du monde, Bratsch
          o Bilovengo
          o Erjaii ya alf leila (Mille et une nuit sans toi)
    * 2007 Airport, Andy
          o Salam

Soundtracks

    * 1993 Un deux trois soleil

    * 1995 Âge des possibles, L'
          o Didi

    * 1995 Highway (1995)
          o Didi

    * 1995 Party Girl
          o Les Ailes

    * 1997 100% Arabica
          o Wahrane Wahrane
          o Cameleons (with Cheb Mami)

    * 1997 The Fifth Element
          o Alech Taadi (Note: This song was featured in the film, but did not appear on the official soundtrack)

    * 1999 Vila Madalena
          o El Arbi

    * 2000 Origine Contrôlée
          o Wana Wana Aamel Eih
          o Dour Biha Ya Chibani

    * 2002 The Truth About Charlie
          o Ragda

    * 2002 The Good Thief
          o Minuit

    * 2004 De l'autre côté

    * 2006 Indigènes (Days of Glory)
          o Ya Dzayer (2 Versions)
          o Mort De Messaoud
          o Nostalgie
          o Sur la tombe
          o El Babour

    * 2007 Taxi 4
          o Benthi (feat. Melissa Lesite)

Filmography

    * 1997 100% Arabica
    * 2003 Art'n Acte Production

Biography

    * 1998 Khaled: Derrière le sourire

Awards

Below is a chronological list of awards won by Khaled

    * 1992 MTV Awards (did)
    * 1993 Venice Film Festival 50TH - (Un, deux, trois, soleil)
    * 1994 César award - best movie soundtrack
    * 1995 Victoires de la Musique (Artist of the Year)
    * 1997 World Music Awards (Song of the year)(Sahra Album)
    * 1997 Victoires de la Musique (Song of the year) (Aicha)
    * 1999 World Music Awards (1,2,3 Soleils) shared with Rachid Taha and Faudel
    * 2004 Grammy jam Awards (Khaled and Carlos Santana)(Love to the people)
    * 2005 R3 Awards BBC Awards for World Music - (Mid East & North Africa Winner)
    * 2005 Montreal International Jazz Festival (The Antonio Carlos-Jobim Award)
    * 2005 ImagineNations and DC Internationals (Empowering Award, for spreading the message of peace)
    * 2006 The Mediterranean Prize for Creativity
    * 2009 MGM Awards ( highest-selling Arab album in history)(The legendary ) (Las Vegas)
    * 2009 Big Apple Music Awards( best Arab artist selling in United States )
    * 2009 NME Awards 2009 (best duet) (with) Magic System




Khaled Hadj Brahim see Khaled
Brahim, Khaled Hadj see Khaled
Cheb Khaled see Khaled
King of Rai see Khaled


Khalid, Banu
Khalid, Banu (Banu Khalid) (Bani Khalid).  Arab tribe in the eastern provinces of modern Saudi Arabia, with its center at the town of al-Hasa.  For the last two centuries, the chieftainship has been in the hands of the ‘Uray‘ir family. The vast majority of the Banu Khalid are Sunni Muslims, historically following the Maliki and Hanbali schools.

Bani Khalid is an Arab tribal confederation of eastern and central Arabia. The tribe dominated the eastern region of modern-day Saudi Arabia (al-Hasa and al-Qatif) from 1670 to 1793, and again under the auspices of the Ottoman Empire for a brief period in the early 19th century. At its greatest extent, the domain of Bani Khalid extended from Kuwait in the north to the borders of Oman in the south, and wielded political influence in the region of Nejd in central Arabia. Most of the tribe's members presently reside in eastern and central Saudi Arabia, while others live in Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, Qatar, Bahrain, and Iraq. The vast majority of the Bani Khalid are Sunni Muslims, historically following the Maliki and Hanbali rites.

The main branches of the tribe are the Al Humaid, the Juboor, the Du'um, the Al Janah, the Grusha, the Al Musallam, the 'Amayer, the Al Subaih and the Mahashir. The chieftainship of the Bani Khalid has traditionally been held by the clan of Al Humaid. The Bani Khalid dominated the deserts surrounding the Al-Hasa and Al-Qatif oases during the 16th and 17th centuries. Under Barrak ibn Ghurayr of the Al Humaid, the Bani Khalid were able to expel Ottoman forces from the cities and towns in 1670 and proclaim their rule over the region. Ibn Ghurayr made his capital in Al-Mubarraz, where remnants of his castle stand today. The first chieftain of the "Khawalid" was Haddori.

The Bani Khalid of eastern Arabia maintained ties with members of their tribe who had settled in Nejd during their earlier migration eastwards, and also cultivated clients among the rulers of the Nejdi towns, such as the Al Mu'ammar of al-Uyayna. When the emir of Uyayna adopted the ideas of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the Khalidi chief ordered him to cease support for Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and expel him from his town. The emir agreed, and Ibn Abd al-Wahhab moved to neighboring Dir'iyyah, where he joined forces with the Al Saud. The Bani Khalid remained staunch enemies of the Saudis and their allies and attempted to invade Nejd and Diriyyah in an effort to stop Saudi expansion. Their efforts failed, however, and after conquering Nejd, the Saudis invaded the Bani Khalid's domain in al-Hasa and deposed the Al 'Ura'yir in 1793.

When the Ottomans invaded Arabia and deposed the Al Saud in 1818, they reoccupied al-Hasa and al-Qatif and reinstated members of the Al 'Uray'ir as governors of the region on their behalf. The Bani Khalid were no longer the potent military force they once were at this time, and tribes such as the Ajman, the Dawasir, Subay', and Mutayr began encroaching on the Bani Khalid's desert territories. They were also beset by internal quarrels over leadership. Though the Bani Khalid were able to forge an alliance with the 'Anizzah tribe in this period, they were eventually defeated by an alliance of several tribes along with the Al Saud, who had reestablished their rule in Riyadh in 1823. A battle with an alliance led by the Mutayr and 'Ajman tribes in 1823, and another battle with the Subay' and the Al Saud in 1830, brought the rule of the Bani Khalid to a close. The Ottomans appointed a governor from Bani Khalid over al-Hasa once more in 1874, but his rule also was short-lived.

Many clans and sections of the Bani Khalid had already settled in al-Hasa and Nejd by this time but many of those who remained bedouin began leaving east Arabia after their military defeats against the Al Saud, eventually settling in Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Many families from Bani Khalid can be found today in Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar as well.

As part of the Saudi king Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud's policy of marrying into the major families and tribes of the country, Ibn Saud married a woman of the 'Amayer clan of Bani Khalid, who gave birth to his two eldest sons Turki and Saud.

Banu Khalid see Khalid, Banu
Bani Khalid see Khalid, Banu


Khalide Edib
Khalide Edib (Halide Edib Adivar) (Halide Edip Adivar) (1884 - January 9, 1964). Turkish novelist, writer and nationalist.  She served as a corporal and a sergeant in the nationalist army during the Anatolian War of Independence.  In May 1919, she made a famous moving and dramatic address at the historic meeting in the Sultan Ahmed Square in Istanbul against the Turkish policy of the Allies.  However, there was a fundamental conflict between her own liberal views and the radicalism of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk which led to her European sojourn from 1924 to 1939.  Upon her return to Turkey, she became a professor of English literature at Istanbul. In 1950, she was elected to the Turkish Parliament. She is the author of twenty novels and wrote her memoirs in two volumes in English while in exile in England (1924-1928).  Common themes in her novels are strong, independent female characters who succeed in reaching their goals against strong opposition.

Halide Edip Adıvar was a Turkish novelist and feminist political leader. She was best known for her novels criticizing the low social status of Turkish women and what she saw as the disinterest of most women in changing their situation.

Halide Edip was born in Istanbul. Her father was a secretary of the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II. She and her father were Donmeh; her mother was Muslim. Edip was educated at home by private tutors from whom she learned European and Ottoman literature, religion, philosophy, sociology, piano, English, French, and Arabic. She learned Greek from her neighbors and from briefly attending a Greek school in Istanbul. She attended the American College for Girls briefly in 1893. In 1897, she translated Mother by Jacob Abbott, for which the sultan awarded her the Order of Charity (Nishan-i-Shafakat; Şefkat Nişanı). She attended the American College again from 1899 to 1901, when she graduated. Her father's house was a center of intellectual activity in Istanbul and even as a child Halide Edip participated in the intellectual life of the city.

After graduating, she married the mathematician and astronomer Salih Zeki Bey, with whom she had two sons. She continued her intellectual activities, however, and in 1908 began writing articles on education and on the status of women for Tevfik Fikret's newspaper Tanin. She published her first novel, Seviye Talip, in 1909. Because of her articles on education, the education ministry hired her to reform girls' schools in Istanbul. She worked with Nakiye Hanım on curriculum and pedagogy changes and also taught pedagogy, ethics, and history in various schools. She resigned over a disagreement with ministry concerning mosque schools.

She received a divorce from Salih Zeki in 1910. Her house became an intellectual salon, especially for those interested in new concepts of Turkishness. She became involved with the Turkish Hearth (Türk Ocağı) in 1911 and became the first female member in 1912. She was also a founder of the Elevation of Women (Taali-i Nisvan) organization.

She married again in 1917 to Dr. Adnan (later Adıvar) and the next year took a job as a lecturer in literature at Istanbul's Faculty of Letters. It was during this time that she became increasingly active in Turkey's nationalist movement.

In 1916-1917, Halide Edip acted as Ottoman inspector for schools in Damascus, Beirut, and Mount Lebanon. The students at these schools included hundreds of Armenian, Arab, Kurdish, and Turkish orphans.

After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, British troops occupied Istanbul and allies occupied various parts of the empire. Mustafa Kemal (later Atatürk) began organizing resistance to the occupation. Halide Edip gained a reputation in Istanbul as a firebrand and a dangerous agitator. The British tried to exile her and several other leaders to Malta in March 1920.

After the end of World War I, Halide and her husband traveled to Anatolia to fight in the War of Independence; she served first as a corporal and then as a sergeant in the nationalist military.

In 1926, Halide Edip and many associates were unjustly accused of treason. She and her husband escaped to Europe. They lived in the French Third Republic and the United Kingdom from 1926 to 1939. Halide Edip traveled widely, teaching and lecturing repeatedly in the United States and in British Raj India. After returning to Turkey in 1939, she became a professor in English literature at the Faculty of Letters in Istanbul. In 1950, she was elected to Parliament, resigning in 1954. This was the only formal political position she ever held.

Common themes in Halide Edip's novels were strong, independent female characters who succeeded in reaching their goals against strong opposition. She was also a strong Turkish nationalist, and several stories highlighted the central role of women in the fight for Turkish Independence.

The major works of Halide Edip include:

    * Seviye Talip (1910)
    * Mevut Hükümler (1918)
    * Yeni Turan (1912)
    * Son Eseri (1919)
    * Ateşten Gömlek (1922; translated into English as The Daughter of Smyrna or The Shirt of Flame)
    * Çıkan Kuri (1922)
    * Kalb Ağrısı (1924)
    * Vurun Kahpeye (1926)
    * The Memoirs of Halide Edib (1926; memoir, published in English)
    * The Turkish Ordeal (1928; memoir, published in English)
    * Zeyno'nun Oğlu (1928)
    * The Clown and His Daughter (first published in English in 1935 and in Turkish as Sinekli Bakkal in 1936)
    * Türkün Ateşle İmtihanı (memoir, published in 1962; translated into English as House with Wisteria)

Edib, Khalide see Khalide Edib
Halide Edib Adivar see Khalide Edib
Adivar, Halide Edib see Khalide Edib
Halide Edip Adivar see Khalide Edib
Adivar, Halide Edip see Khalide Edib


Khalid ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Qasri
Khalid ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Qasri (d. 743).  Governor for the Umayyads, first of Mecca and later of Iraq.


Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira
Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira (Khalid ibn al-Walid) (Khalid ibn al-Waleed) (Sayf-'ullah al-Maslul -- "The Drawn Sword of God" or "God's Withdrawn Sword" or "Sword of God") (592-642).  Arab general who was the conqueror of northern Arabia, Syria, Iraq, and Iran.  Khalid Ibn al-Walid was a general who fought against the Prophet at the Battle of Uhud which occurred in 625 C.C.  At the Battle of Uhud, Khalid Ibn al-Walid’s brilliant tactical maneuvers led to the first military defeat of the nascent Muslim community. Later (in 627), Khalid converted to Islam and, as the chief general of the Caliph Abu Bakr, was responsible for the stunning conquests of Byzantine territory that laid the foundation for a rapidly expanding Islamic empire.  He is credited with a famous desert crossing, which led to the conquest of al-Hira in 633 and consequently to the conquest of Iraq.  He is considered to be one of the greatest military commanders in history having never lost a battle in over one hundred engagements even against numerically superior Byzantine and Persian forces.

Khālid ibn al-Walīd was one of the two generals (along with ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ) of the enormously successful Islamic expansion under the Prophet Muhammad and his immediate successors, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar.

Although he fought against Muhammad at Uḥud (625), Khālid was later converted (627/629) and joined Muhammad in the conquest of Mecca in 629; thereafter he commanded a number of conquests and missions in the Arabian Peninsula. After the death of Muhammad, Khālid recaptured a number of provinces that were breaking away from Islam. He was sent northeastward by the caliph Abū Bakr to invade Iraq, where he conquered Al-Ḥīrah. Crossing the desert, he aided in the conquest of Syria; and, though the new caliph, ʿUmar, formally relieved him of high command (for unknown reasons), Khālid remained the effective leader of the forces facing the Byzantine armies in Syria and Palestine.

Routing the Byzantine armies, he surrounded Damascus, which surrendered on September 4, 635, and pushed northward. Early in 636, he withdrew south of the Yarmūk River before a powerful Byzantine force that advanced from the north and from the coast of Palestine. The Byzantine armies were composed mainly of Christian Arab, Armenian, and other auxiliaries, however; and when many of these deserted the Byzantines, Khālid, reinforced from Medina and possibly from the Syrian Arab tribes, attacked and destroyed the remaining Byzantine forces along the ravines of the Yarmūk valley (August 20, 636). Almost 50,000 Byzantine troops were slaughtered, which opened the way for many other Islamic conquests.



Sayf-'ullah al-Maslul see Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira
The Drawn Sword of God see Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira
God's Withdrawn Sword see Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira
Sword of God see Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira
Khalid ibn al-Waleed see Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira
Khalid ibn al-Walid see Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira


Khalid ibn Safwan
Khalid ibn Safwan (Ibn al-Ahtam) (Amr ibn al-Ahtam).  (d. 677) Seventh century transmitter of historical traditions, poetry and memorable orations, famed for his eloquence.  
Ibn al-Ahtam see Khalid ibn Safwan
Amr ibn al-Ahtam see Khalid ibn Safwan
Ahtam, Amr ibn al- see Khalid ibn Safwan


Khalid ibn Sa‘id
Khalid ibn Sa‘id (Khālid ibn Sa`īd ibn al-As) (Khalid ibn Sa`d ibn al-`As al-Amawi) (d. 635).  According to several transmitters of hadith, Khalid ibn Sa‘id was, if not the fourth Companion of the Prophet, at least one of the second group of three.

Khālid ibn Sa`īd was a companion to Muhammad.  He was one of the Muhajirun and participiated in the events of Thaqif and Islam.


Khālid ibn Sa`īd ibn al-As see Khalid ibn Sa‘id
Khalid ibn Sa`d ibn al-`As al-Amawi see Khalid ibn Sa‘id


Khalid, Khalid Muhammad
Khalid, Khalid Muhammad (1920-1996).  Egyptian writer and essayist.  Born in Sharqiyyah Province, he graduated from al-Azhar in 1947 with an ‘Alimiyah degree from the Faculty of Shari‘ah and then gained a teaching certificate, also from al-Azhar.  He worked as an Arabic language teacher and then in the Cultural Bureau (Idarat al-Thaqafah) of the Ministry of Education and with the Writers’ Committee (Hay’at al-Kuttab) connected to the Ministry of Culture.  He later became a supervisor in the Department for the Publication of the Heritage (Al-Ishraf ‘ala Idarat Tahqiq al-Turath).  He has written more than thirty books, as well as political and religious articles in newspapers and magazines, such as Al-sharq al-awsat, Al-muslimun, Al-musawwar, Al-ahram, and Al-wafd.

His first book, Min huna nabda’ (From Here We Begin, 1950) was confiscated because of objections from al-Azhar and then released by order of the Cairo district court.  In this book, Khalid Muhammad Khalid mounted a forceful attack on “priesthood,” clearly having al-Azhar or at least its conservative elements in view, and called for separation of religion and state, using arguments reminiscent of those made in the 1920s by ‘Ali ‘Abd al-Raziq.  He also called for a moderate and democratic socialism, effective birth control, and furtherance of the rights of women.  He expressed similar views in other passionately written books in the 1950s and early 1960s, such as Muwatinun … la ra‘aya (Citizens … not Subjects, c. 1951), which was also confiscated for a time, Ma‘an, ‘ala al-tariq … Muhammad wa-al-Masih (Together on the Road – Muhammad and Christ, 1958), in which he presented both prophets as standing for the same values of humanity, life, love, and peace, Al-dimugratiyah abadan (Democracy Forever, 1953), and many others.  Some of the suggestions in these books were enacted into law by the post-1952 government, although he did not favor Nasser’s one party system.

Beginning in the early 1960s, Khalid turned his attention to more specifically Islamic topics, including several books on Muhammad and other early Islamic heroes.  In Al-dawlah fi al-Islam (The State in Islam, 1981), he revised the secularist position of his first book, describing it as “exaggerated,” and he argued that, although Islam does not prescribe the sort of “religious government” attacked there, it does have a civil as well as a religious mission and does call for the state to apply Islamic principles.  He maintained that an Islamic state aims at liberty and opposes despotism and that the divine command of shura (consultation) today takes the form of parliamentary democracy.

In the development of his thinking, Khalid Muhammad Khalid appears to illustrate the shift of much Egyptian and Muslim thinking over the same time period, from the strong emphasis on social justice and reform, or even revolution, of the 1950s to the greater concern for Islamic authenticity in the 1980s.  Over time, he came closer to the position of his friend, Muhammad al-Ghazali (Mohammed al-Ghazali al-Saqqa) (1917-1996), who criticized his first work from an Islamic point of view.


Khalid Muhammad Khalid see Khalid, Khalid Muhammad


Khalifa
Khalifa. Arabic word for caliph.  The term is derived from the Arabic word khilafa, commonly used to denote several groups of rulers regarded as the real or nominal leaders of the entire Muslim world and the legitimate representatives of the judicial, administrative, and military power of the Islamic state.  The title of caliph, khalifa (“successor” or “deputy”), was actually only one of several applied to this office.  In juridical theory, the institution is more correctly termed the imamate (in Arabic, imama).

The office of caliph originated upon the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 as a way of maintaining the spiritual and political unity of the Islamic community.  It continued to develop on a more or less ad hoc basis under the pressure of specific problems and needs.  The legal theory of the caliphate was not worked out until much later and in a way that accommodated and legitimized precedents set by early holders of the office.  In Sunni Islam, a number of legal scholars dealt with the theory of the caliphate/imamate.  The classic formulation was that of Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi (974-1058).  

The existence of the caliphate was considered an absolute necessity to prevent anarchy and preserve the religion.  The Muslim community was responsible for seeing that the office was filled and obeyed.  In accordance with the historical examples, a person could become caliph either through election by qualified electors (“people who loosen and bind”) or upon designation by the preceding caliph.  In practice, the office was often held by force of arms or dynastic succession.  Some caliphs used the title khalifat Allah (“deputy of God”) instead of khalifat rasul Allah (“successor of the prophet of God”) to imply that their authority derived directly from God, but this was never widely accepted.  According to the theory, qualifications for the office included moral and religious respectability, sound mental and physical capacities, courage and fortitude, and descent from the tribe of Quraysh (again to accommodate the historical precedents).  The caliph’s primary duties were to preserve Islam as perfected by the early community, to suppress religious deviation, to execute the religious law, to lead the prayer services, to defend Muslim territories, to conduct the holy war, and to supervise taxation and administration.

Most sects of Shi‘ite Islam used the title imam exclusively to denote the head of the Muslim community.  Instead of belonging to Quraysh, the imam had to be a member of the family of the prophet Muhammad and acquired the office only through the explicit designation of his predecessor (and under no circumstances by election).  The true imam combined both absolute religious authority and legitimate political power.  The Shi‘ites generally regarded the Sunni caliphate as an essentially secular and illegitimate institution.  As the power of the caliphate declined, many Sunni scholars also came to distinguish between the charismatic leadershp of the first four Rightly Guided caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali) and that of the merely “royal” Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties of caliphs (661-749 and 750-1258, respectively).

Aside from the Rightly Guided (Rashidun) caliphs, the Umayyads, and the Abbasids, only a few other groups of rulers were regarded as caliphs, most notably the Spanish Umayyads of Cordova (755-1236) and the Shi‘ite Fatimids (910-1171).  The Mamelukes of Egypt claimed to have maintained a shadow Abbasid caliphate after the Mongol sack of Baghdad, and the Ottoman sultans sometimes claimed to have inherited the caliphate from the Abbasids.  There is at present no recognized caliphate despite occasional calls by modern Muslim reformers to resurrect the office.


caliph see Khalifa.
khilafa see Khalifa.
successor see Khalifa.
deputy see Khalifa.


Khalifa, Al
Khalifa, Al (Al Khalifa).  Ruling dynasty of Bahrain since 1783, when Ahmad ibn Khalifa ibn Muhammad wrested control of the Bahrain islands from the Persians. The Al Khalifa family are Sunni Muslims.

The Al Khalifa dynasty is the ruling Sunni family of Bahrain. The Al Khalifa clan belongs to the Anizah tribe that migrated from Najd to Kuwait in the early Eighteenth Century. After arriving at Kuwait, they entered under the umbrella of the Bani Utbah at Kuwait. The current head of the family is Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa who became the emir of Bahrain in 1999 and proclaimed himself king of Bahrain in 2002.

A list of the monarchs of Bahrain from the Al-Khalifa dynasty includes the following:

    * Ahmed "Al-Fateh" bin Muhammad bin Khalifa (1783-1795)
    * Abdullah ibn Ahmad Al-Khalifa (1820-1843)
    * Salman ibn Ahmad Al-Khalifa (1820-1825)
    * Khalifah ibn Salman Al-Khalifa (1825-1834)
    * Muhammad ibn Khalifa Al-Khalifa (1835-1869)
    * Ali ibn Khalifa Al-Khalifa (1868-1869)
    * Muhammad ibn Khalifa Al-Khalifa (18??-1897)
    * Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Khalifa (1813-1890)
    * Isa ibn Ali Al-Khalifa (1848-1933)
    * Hamad ibn Isa Al-Khalifa (1872-1942)
    * Salman ibn Hamad Al-Khalifa (1894-1961)
    * Isa ibn Salman Al- Khalifa (1933-1999)
    * Hamad ibn Isa Al-Khalifa (born 1950; King of Bahrain since 2002)


Khalifa ibn Abi’l-Mahasin
Khalifa ibn Abi’l-Mahasin.  Thirteenth century Arab physician from Aleppo.  He wrote a work on ophthalmology around 1260 that was among the first to include ocular illustrations.


Khalil Allah But-Shikan
Khalil Allah But-Shikan (1374-1460).  Persian mystic of Kirman who was active in South India.
But-Shikan, Khalil Allah see Khalil Allah But-Shikan
Shikan, Khalil Allah But- see Khalil Allah But-Shikan

Khalil, al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din
Khalil, al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din (al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din Khalil) (al-Ashraf Khalil) (Al-Malik al-Ashraf Salāh al-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn) (b. c. 1262, Cairo - d. December 14, 1293, Kom Turuga).   Mameluke sultan (r.1290-1293).  His fame rests upon his conquest of Acre in 1291, which put an end to Christian domination of Palestine.  He was assassinated in December 1293 in Turuga.  Besides being remembered as the conqueror of Acre, he is remembered as an intelligent sultan who was fond of reading and writing.

Al-Ashraf Salāh al-Dīn Khalil was the eighth Mameluke sultan of Egypt from 1290 until his assassination in December, 1293. He is most famous for conquering the last of the Crusader states in Palestine.

Al-Ashraf Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Khalīl completed his father Qalāʾūn’s (Qalawun's) campaign to drive the Franks from Syria. He captured Acre (now ʿAkko, Israel) in the spring of 1291, and the remaining crusader fortresses were surrendered by the end of the year. He was murdered by his emirs, who were alarmed by his ambition.

Al-Ashraf Khalil, the 8th Kipchak Turkic Sultan of Egypt was the son of Sultan Qalawun. He became heir to the Sultanate and was named co-sultan with his father shortly after the sudden death of his older brother as-Salih Ali in 1288. During the investiture, Khalil faced a formal problem as the succession document was not signed by his late father. According to the ceremony judge, Fath ad-Din Abdul Zahir, his father refused to sign the document before his death saying: "Fath ad-Din, I can not let Khalil rule the Muslims". When Khalil saw the document without his father's signature he said: "Fath ad-Din, the sultan declined to give it to me, but God gave it to me" and he was inaugurated. Qalawun's vice-Sultan, Hosam ad-Din Turuntay and Emir Kitbugha, were arrested by Khalil and Turuntay was executed as he led a conspiracy to kill him but Kitbugha was later released. While Baydara al-Mansuri became the new Vice-Sultan, Hosam ad-Din Lajin became the deputy of the Sultan in Syria and Ibn al-Salus was granted the post of vizier. After Khalil liquidated his opponents and secured his position he was ready to complete the work which his father did not finish, namely the recapturing of the last strongholds of the Franks situated on the Syrian coast.

Qalawun, father of Khalil, conquered the County of Tripoli in 1289, and in 1290 marched on Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but, to the relief of the Franks of Acre, he died in November before launching the attack. He was succeeded by Khalil who decided to continue the attack. Khalil sent a message to William of Beaujeu, the Master of the Temple, telling him about his intentions to attack Acre and urging him not to send messengers or gifts. But a delegation from Acre led by Sir Philip Mainebeuf, arrived in Cairo with gifts and appealed to Khalil not to attack Acre. Khalil did not accept the request and imprisoned the Frank messengers.

Al-Ashraf Khalil assembled the forces of Egypt and Syria, which included a great number of volunteers and siege engines from everywhere at Hisn al-Akrad. Some of Khalil's catapults were huge and had such names as "Al Mansuri" and "The Furious" in addition to lighter, but potent, mangonels called "Black Bulls". Four armies from Damascus (led by Lajin), Hama (led by al-Muzaffar Taqai ad-Din), Tripoli (led by Bilban) and Al Kark (led by Baibars al-Dewadar) marched to Acre to join the Egyptian army of Khalil. In addition to the historian Baibars al-Dewadar who led the army of Al Karak, Abu al-Fida was another prominent historian who accompanied al-Ashraf in his Levantine expedition.

The Franks of Acre were for some time aware of the seriousness of the situation. They asked for help from Europe which resulted in nothing significant. A small group of knights, among them the Swiss Otto de Grandison, were sent by Edward I of England. Burchard of Schwanden, the Grand Master of the German Teutonic Knights, resigned and was replaced by Konrad von Feuchtwangen who suddenly left Acre for Europe. The only noteworthy reinforcement came from Henry II of Cyprus who fortified the walls and sent forces led by his brother Amalric to defend the city. Acre was well defended by two lines of thick walls and had Twelve towers which were built by European kings and rich pilgrims.

On April 5, 1291, Khalil's forces stood in front of Acre. The army of Hama took its position on front of the Templars' tower, while the Egyptian army stretched out from the end of the wall of Montmusard up to the Gulf of Acre. The Dihliz (red tent of the Sultan and the headquarters) stood on a small hill near the shore on front of the Tower of the Legate. On April 6, the catapults began to hurl stones and fire over the walls of Acre. For eight days the walls were hurled and both armies engaged in occasional clashes. At the end of the eight days the Muslims set up barricades and began to move further towards the city, using wicker screens, till in the end they reached the edge of the wall. Carabohas were brought up and parts of the wall were mined out. Despite the continual arrival of reinforcements from Cyprus to Acre by sea, the Franks became convinced of their lack of strength against Khalil's army. On April 15, under moonlight, the Templars, led by Jean Grailly and Otto de Grandison, launched a sudden attack against the camp of the contingent of Hama but their horses got their legs tangled in the ropes of the Muslims' tents and were caught and many were killed. Another attack, after a few days and this time under cover of darkness, by the Hospitallers also ended badly.

On May 5, some hope was revived when Henry II of Cyprus arrived with forces transported by 40 ships. But soon Henry, too, became convinced of his helplessness. The Franks sent messengers to Al-Ashraf Khalil who saluted him on their knees. Khalil asked them whether they brought him the keys of the city, but they replied that the city could not be surrendered so easily and that they only came to plea for mercy for the poor inhabitants and that the Franks were willing to discuss any injustice done by them earlier to the Muslims and to restore the truce signed by them and the Muslims. Khalil promised the messengers to spare the life of everyone if the Franks handed him Acre peacefully but the messengers refused his offer. While the messengers were still there a huge catapult stone launched from the city struck the ground near the sultan's tent. Khalil, believing that the crusaders were negotiating in bad faith, reacted furiously and wanted to kill the two messengers but Emir Sanjar al-Shuja' pleaded for them and they were sent back to the city.

From May 8, Acre's towers began to cave in one after one. On May 18, early in the morning at sunrise, the Sultan gave his order to launch an all-out attack on all points, accompanied by sound of trumpets and drums carried on 300 camels. The Muslim forces advanced towards a great tower that was called the Accursed Tower and forced the Frankish garrison to retreat to the side of the Gate of St. Anthony. Muslim standards were placed on the walls. All counter-attacks and attempts made by the Hospitallers and the Templars to recapture the tower were in vain. King Henry II and the Master of the Hospital boarded their galleys and fled from Acre. William of Beaujeu, the Master of the Temple, and Matthew of Clermont were killed. By capturing these positions, the Muslim forces were now inside the city fighting the Franks in the streets and alleys of Acre, which turned into a terrifying chaos as the inhabitants were fleeing towards the sea. How many inhabitants perished on land and in sea is unknown. Before night, Acre, after being in the hands of the Franks for 100 years, was in the hands of Al-Ashraf Khalil and his army after a siege of 43 days, with exception of the huge headquarters of the Templars which stood on the west side of the city seashore. After a week, Al-Ashraf Khalil negotiated with Peter de Severy, who was in charge of the Templars, and it was agreed that the Templars and everyone inside the fortress would have free passage to Cyprus, but the Sultan's men who were sent to the fortress to supervise the evacuation appeared not to be disciplined enough to handle the matter and were massacred by the Templars. Under the cover of darkness, Theobald Gaudin, the new Master of the Temple, left the fortress for Sidon with a few people and the fortune of the Templars. In the morning, Peter de Severy went to the Sultan to settle a new negotiation but he was arrested with his followers and they were executed in retaliation for the Sultan's men who were massacred earlier by the Templars inside the fortress. When the besieged Templars in the fortress saw what happened to Peter de Severy, they continued the fight. On May 28, after a wide breach was made under the fortress, the Sultan sent about 2000 men to take it. The Frankish fortress collapsed killing everyone inside, including the Sultan's men.

The news of the conquest of Acre reached Damascus and Cairo. Al-Ashraf Khalil entered the decorated city of Damascus with Franks chained at the feet and the captured crusader standards which were carried upside-down as a sign of their defeat. After celebrating his victory in Damascus, Khalil left for Cairo which was also decorated and celebrating. Upon arriving at Cairo, he ordered the release of Philip Mainebeuf and the men who accompanied him to Cairo earlier.

The port of Tyre was one of the most protected strongholds of the Franks on the Syrian coast. Saladin failed twice to capture it. Tyre was passed from Margaret of Lusignan to her nephew Amalric shortly before the capture of Acre by Al-Ashraf Khalil. On May 19, Al-Ashraf, while still in Acre, sent a group of men, led by Emir Sanjar al-Shuja'i, to examine the situation in Tyre. Having a small garrison and seeing the fleeing refugees from Acre, Adam of Cafran, the Bailli of Tyre, panicked and fled to Cyprus. Tyre was taken by the Muslims without a fight.

A month after the capture of Acre, Al-Ashraf Khalil sent a force led by Emir al-Shuja'i to Sidon. The Knights Templar, as their fortune had been brought to Sidon earlier by Theobald Gaudin, the new Master of the Temple, decided to take refuge inside a castle that was built on an isle about 90 meters from the shore. Gaudin took the fortune and left for Cyprus after he promised his followers to send reinforcement from Cyprus. But Gaudin never sent anything and his followers had to fight till they fled by sea, in the night, to Tartous after they saw the Muslims building a bridge. Emir al-Shuja'i ordered the destruction of the sea castle on July 14.

After the capture of Sidon, al-Shuja'i marched to Beirut. Beirut, which had a small garrison, was an important trading seaport for the Crusaders. Eschiva of Ibelin, the Lady of Beirut, thought she was secure because she had a truce with al-Ashraf Khalil's father Qalawun. Al-Shuja'i summoned the commanders of the garrison and arrested them. Seeing the commanders arrested, everyone fled by sea. Beirut was taken by the Muslims on July 31. Al-Shuja'i ordered the razing of its walls and castles and turned its Cathedral to a Mosque.

Haifa was captured on July 31, with little resistance. Tartus was besieged by Emir Bilban and the crusaders had to flee to the nearby island of Arwad and was captured on August 3, followed by Atlit on August 14. Nothing was left for the Franks except the Island of Arwad which was captured by an Egyptian army later in 1302.

In 1292, Al-Ashraf Khalil accompanied by his Vizier Ibn al-Salus arrived to Damascus and left - via Aleppo - to besiege the castle of Qal'at ar-Rum (Hromgla in Armenian). Qal'at ar-Rum, which was the seat of the Patriarch of Armenia, was besieged by more than 30 catapults and was captured after 30 days by Khalil, who renamed it Qal'at al-Muslimin (Castle of the Muslims). Khalil left Emir al-Shaja'i at the castle and returned to Damascus with prisoners. The population of Damascus bid farewell to the victorious Sultan on his way to Cairo at night with thousands of lighted candles. The Sultan entered Cairo from the Victory Gate (Bab al-Nasr) and was greeted by the celebrating population, also with thousands of lighted candles.

The Sultan returned to Damascus and assembled an army to invade Sis, the capital of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, but Armenian messengers arrived in Damascus and appealed to him not to attack Sis. Til Hemdun, Marash and Behesni were given to the Sultan in exchange for peace. On the other hand, Khalil had good relations with the Kingdom of Cyprus, the Kingdom of Aragon, and the Kingdom of Sicily, who had commercial and military treaties with him.

The process of conquering the crusader kingdom, begun by Saladin in 1187, was finally completed by Khalil who was described on some of his monuments as Alexander. Al-Ashraf was also planning to attack Cyprus and the Mongols in Baghdad.

The Crusaders were shocked. Their 200 years of effort had gone in vain. The crusaders' kingdom of Jerusalem had already been destroyed by Saladin, Baibars and Qalawun, and Louis IX's Seventh Crusade against Egypt ended in a complete failure, but the crusaders tried to keep their strongholds on the Syrian coast intact, hoping to be able one day to recapture what they had lost. Pope Nicholas IV tried to act but he died in 1292, and the European kings, who became involved in internal conflicts and struggles, became unable to organize new effective crusades. As for the Templars, they were accused of heresy in Europe and badly persecuted by King Philip IV of France and Pope Clement V.

Militarily,

Al-Ashraf Khalil possessed the vigor and capability of two of his predecessors, Baibars and his father Qalawun. But many Emirs disliked him. He started his reign by executing and imprisoning a few prominent Emirs of his father, among them the vice-Sultan Turuntay. During the battle for Acre he arrested Hosam ad-Din Lajin and later, after he returned to Cairo, he executed Sunqur al-Ashqar and a few Emirs. Khalil continued his father's policy of replacing Turkish Mamelukes with Circassians, a policy which contributed to the intensification of the rivalry among the Mamelukes. After his victories against the Franks, arrogance took hold of al-Ashraf Khalil. He treated the Emirs roughly and began to sign messages and documents with the letter "KH" only. In addition, his Vizier Ibn al-Salus was envied by many Emirs and by the vice-Sultan Baydara in particular. Ibn al-Salus who, originally, was neither a Mameluke nor an Emir but a merchant from Damascus, became the most influential official during the reign of Khalil. While Al-Ashraf was rough on the Emirs, he was very generous towards Ibn al-Salus who did not treat the Emirs with respect. Ibn al-Salus was involved in the unjust persecution of the supreme judge of Egypt, Ibn Bint al-A'az, as he was involved in provoking the Sultan against Baydara on several occasions.

In December 1293, Al-Ashraf Khalil accompanied by Ibn al-Salus, Baydara and other Emirs went to Turug in northern Egypt on a bird-hunting expedition. He sent Ibn Al-Salus to the nearby city of Alexandria to bring materials and to collect the taxes. Arriving at Alexandria, Ibn Al-Salus found out that the deputies of Baydara had already taken everything. On receiving a message from Ibn Al-Salus with this news, Al-Ashraf summoned Baydara to his Dihlis and insulted and threatened him in the presence of other Emirs. The distressed Baydar left the Dihlis and called Lajin, Qara Sunqur and other Emirs and together they decided to kill the Sultan. On December 14, while the Sultan was walking with his friend Emir Shihab ad-Din Ahmad he was attacked and assassinated by Baydara and his followers. The Emirs who struck the Sultan after Baydara were Hosam ad-Din Lajin and Bahadir Ras Nubah followed by other Emirs. After the assassination of Al-Ashraf Khalil, Baydara and his followers went to the Dihliz and proclaimed Baydara the new Sultan. But Baydara was soon arrested by the Sultani Mamelukes and Emirs. Baydara was killed by the Sultani Emirs led by Kitbugha and Baibars al-Jashnikir and his head was sent to Cairo. Ibn al-Salus was arrested in Alexandria and was sent to Cairo where he was mistreated and at last beaten to death. The Emirs who were involved in the assassination of Al-Ashraf Khalil were severely punished and executed. Lajin and Qara Sunqur fled and disappeared.

After the death of Al-Ashraf Khalil, the Emirs decided to install his 9-year-old brother Al-Nasir Muhammad as the new Sultan with Kitbugha as vice-Sultan and al-Shaja'i as the new Vizier. But the death of Al-Ashraf Khalil was concealed for sometime. While Al-Ashraf was dead, his brother Al-Nasir Muhammad was proclaimed Vice-Sultan and heir. A message from Egypt to the Syrian Emirs said: "I appointed my brother al-Malik al-Nasir Muhammad as my Vicegerent and heir so that when I go to fight the enemy he replaces me ". As soon as everything was under control, the death of Al-Ahraf Khalil was revealed to the public in Egypt and Syria.

Al-Ashraf Khalil ruled about three years and two months. He had two daughters. Besides being remembered as the conqueror of Acre, he was remembered by Muslim historians as an intelligent Sultan who was fond of reading and learning.


Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din Khalil, al- see Khalil, al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din
Khalil, al-Ashraf see Khalil, al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din
Ashraf Khalil, al- see Khalil, al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din
Al-Malik al-Ashraf Salāh al-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn  see Khalil, al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din

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